Without them the submarines would have to withdraw. Requisitioned, armed, equipped and returned into service in November 1939; Covers: Freighter MS Goldenfels, Norwegian Knute Nelson, Soviet freighter SS Kim, Japanese Kasii Maru, Dutch Abbekerk. Returned to Germany, was used as training ship Fenchenheim. KMS Orion in 1940 (bismarck-class.dk) Launched in 1931 in Hamburg, former SS Kurmark. On 1 … Support Naval Encyclopedia, get your poster or wallpaper now ! Two man Japanese suicide … The U.S. Navy decided the best defense was a good offense and planned to build a small fleet of large cruisers, or CBs, to chase them down Japanese commerce raiders. Books, LLC. In the Pacific, the U.S. Navy operated against Japanese merchant shipping, as well as engaging in offensive operations against ships of the Japanese Imperial Navy. English: German Auxiliary cruisers, Commerce raiders or Merchant raiders were civilian ships, often passenger ships, which were fairly heavily armed during World War II to become warships for convoy escort or attacking other merchant ships. During World War I, the British Royal Navy deployed Q-ships to combat German U-boats. With 35 German cargo vessels stranded in the Pacific region by the outbreak of war, the high command was anxious to test the feasibility of bringing them home during the summer of 1940, as well as exploring the possibility of using the Arctic route for other shipping, preferably commerce raiders, enabling them to safely pass to and from the Pacific. Submarine patrolling in the Pacific. … During the Great War, Germany employed several ways to disrupt British trade and counter the Blockade, using a number of privateers: The Möwe, Wolf, Greif, Wolf II, Geier, Leopard, Iltis, and Seeadler (a tall ship). Profile of the Atlantis disguised as the Kasii Maru Launched in 1938 in Bremen. Requisitioned, armed, equipped and put into service in September 1939. Several captains demonstrated great creativity in disguising their vessels to masquerade as allied or as neutral merchants. Read reviews from world’s largest community for readers. Sailors hear tale of gallantry at airport, DOD’s Autonomous Vessel Sails Through Transit Test, Participates in Exercise Dawn Blitz, CNO Asks Fleet for Moment of Silence in Honor of USS Indianapolis 75th Anniversary, Castor class coastal patrol vessels of the Belgian Navy (plus PHOTO GALLERY #36), 1 screw, Blohm & Voss turbine, 4 boilers, 6200 hp = 13,5 kn, 6 x 150mm, 1 x 75mm, 4 x 37mm AA, 4 x 20mm AA, 6 TT 533 mm, 288 mines, 2 planes, 2 screws, 4 diesels Kupp-Germaniawerft, 2 Siemens Schuckert motors, 16 000 hp, 18 kn, 6 x 150mm, 1 x 75mm, 4 x 37AA, 5 x 20mm AA, 6 TT 533 mm, 360 mines, 1LS MBT, 2 planes, 1 screw, 2 MAN diesels 6cyl, 7600 hp = 16 kn, 6 x 150, 1 x 75, 2 x 37AA, 4 x 20AA, 6 TT 533 mm, 92 mines, 2 planes, 1 screw, Blohm & Voss turbine, 4 boilers, 6200 hp = 14 kn, 6x 150mm, 1x 75mm, 4x 37mm AA, 4x 20mm AA, 6 TT 533 mm, 2 planes, 1 screw, AEG turbine, 2 boilers La Mont, 6500 hp = 18 kn, 6 x 150mm, 1 x 75mm, 1 x 37mm AA, 4 x 20mm AA, 6 TT 533 mm, 1 plane. During the Civil War, Confederate commerce raiders sank so many Union merchant ships that the American Merchant Marine never fully recovered from its losses. German Raiders - Only 11 months before German attacked Russia, “Komet” sailed for the Pacific through the North East Passage across the top of Siberia with the aid of Russian icebreakers. They were the deadliest ships of World War II--nine German commerce raiders disguised as peaceful cargo ships, flying the flags of neutral and allied nations. These commerce raiders carried no armour because their purpose was to attack merchantmen, not to engage warships. In World War II nine German Merchant raiders, Atlantis, Komet, Kormoran, ... Osprey books has a couple of good books on these commerce raiders. Requisitioned, armed, equipped and put into service in March 1940. Ended in an unequal duel against the British heavy cruiser HMS Devonshire in the South Atlantic, November 23, 1941. The Germans used a sailing ship at this stage of the war because coal-fired ships had limited access to fuel outside of territories held by the Central Powers due to international regulations concerning refueling of combat ships in neutral countries. She had 2 Heinkel 114. After this operation was canceled, the now renamed Stier was modified into an auxiliary cruiser in April 1941, first at the Wilton shipyard Rotterdam and later a… These ships enjoyed mixed success, had artillery up to 105 and 150 mm, light guns and torpedo tubes. This list may not reflect recent changes . With the ability to change their own ship's profile and, therefore, their own apparent identity, these nine were Germany's secret commerce raiders of the high seas during WW2. In the Pacific, the U.S. Navy operated against Japanese merchant shipping, as well as engaging in offensive operations against ships of the Japanese Imperial Navy. Their armament was obsolete (old cannons salvaged from cruisers of the Hochseeflotte), but their crews were hand-picked and the best in the German Navy. Armed passenger Liners have been used in navies since the days of the American Civil war. The Germans used a sailing ship at this stage of the war because coal-fired ships had limited access to fuel outside of territories held by the Central Powersdue to international regulations concerning refueling of combat ships … In any case, they are lesswell known known that their successors, the WW2 German Commerce Raiders, often better armed and more successful, that is, until WW1 centennial make them rise again from memory. I found this post on Facebook, how do you guys respond to this? The most famous captain of a German merchant raider, Felix von Luckner, used the sailing ship SMS Seeadler for his voyage (1916–1917). Theodore Roosevelt Carrier Strike Group Enters South China Sea > US Indo-Pacific Command ... Elbit Systems to supply Seagull USV to Asia Pacific customer. During World War I, Imperial Germany put several commerce raiders to sea in an effort to disrupt the shipping routes on which Great Britain relied. Eventually raiders also sometimes attacked military vessels. Almost survived the war, not being sunk until 4th May 1945 by aircraft at Swinemunde. The results they obtained in operations were generally good. The aim of the design was to have them mimicking a large array of near-similar or approaching neutral ships, approach other ships, then reveal their true identity. No radar was provided so she carried Arado 196 for advanced long range recognition, and a single torpedo craft LS3, able to launch two aviation torpedoes. I thoroughly enjoyed this very readable account of two German commerce-raiders in the early years of WW2. They ships were generally recent, powerful and fast, roomy and adaptable (and equipped) to fake numerous identities. One could still make a difference. After merchant warfare operations in the Baltic Sea, she was converted into a mine layer and was planned to be used during Operation Sea Lion. The successful cruise of converted merchant ship "Pinguin"is described in parallel with the much less successful raiding activities of the heavy cruiser "Hipper". Guns were hidden under the hinged folding panels for quick release. Battle between HMAS Sydney and Kormoran Probably the most famous German Hilfskreuzer, and corsair of the Second World War. Reply . These are stories to be told. Using such kind of ship was singular but not anachronistic: Nearly half of the merchant tonnage in 1914 was still assumed by sailing ships. One the right are some of these Ships and their stories. What generally followed was a short and bloody artillery duel at close range for which the Raider had the advantage of surprise. Had 2 Heinkel 114. For the World War I cruiser, see SMS Seeadler.. SMS Seeadler (Ger: sea eagle) was a three-master steel-hulled sailing ship.She was one of the last fighting sailing ships to be used in war when she served as a merchant raider with Imperial Germany in World War I.Built as the British-flagged Pass of Balmaha, she was captured by the … They guy who posted it is a Navy Corpsman. These vessels were faster than regular merchant vessels, which was important for a warship. She operated in the Pacific and Indian Oceans until returning to Germany in November 1941, the last of the first wave of surface raiders to leave Germany. The Pinguin's captain, Ernst-Felix Kruder, emerges as a forgotten hero of the war, and as a humane man as … Sank or captured 22 ships during her career (145 968 GRT), which classed her among the best German Hilfskreuzers. Their arma… Became the gunners training ship Hector in January 1944, then cadet training ship Orion in 1945. Most of these vessels were in the 8,000–10,000 long tons (8,100–10,200 t) range. The “Hilfskreuzer” (auxiliary cruisers, generally complemented by “HSK”- Handels Stör Kreuzer, commerce raiders) were one of the trump cards of Admiral Raeder in his strategy. Built by Germaniawerft in 1936 as the freighter Cairo, she was operated by the Atlas Levant Line (ALL) until being requisitioned for Kriegsmarine services in November 1939. The Karlsruhe, the lone ship based in the Caribbean, headed to the mid-Atlantic. Their most active and effective period was 1939-1941: Together they sank 140 ships, a total of 700 000 tons. Tied to the supply ship KMS Uckermark in Yokohama November 30, 1942 but exlosed for still unclear reasons. Yet despite its ferocity, the Nazi’s Pacific campaign has been largely forgotten. Their process was intangible: When a raider spotted a merchant ship, the former was closing up to be at firing range, compared the name of the ship to Lloyd’s register to identify her as Belligerent or neutral. She could also quickly be converted in many other disguised. Merchant raiders are armed commerce raiding ships that disguise themselves as non-combatant merchant vessels. The Devonshire sank the German commerce raider Atlantis on 22 November 1941. Shenandoah. Ships typologies and fleets studies. The Hochseeflotte also commissioned a number of fast ships as auxiliary cruisers: Steamer SS Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse, Prinz Eitel Friedrich, Crown Prince Wilhelm, and Kormoran, Cape Trafalgar, Berlin, Vineta and Meteor. Germany sent out two waves of six surface raiders each during World War II. German Commerce Raiders 1914–18 book. On her first patrol off the main Japanese island of Honshū in January 1942, the … A score well above other military ships of the Kriegsmarine, and also superior to many U-Bootes. The concept of commerce raiding was centuries old at least. Either a prize crew was sent aboard and the captured vessel sailed back to a friendly port or the vessel was sunk, usually through burning. Some corsairs also started to use various disguises to hide their armament, unveiled only at the last moment. Her cruise in the Pacific lasted 350 days, during which she sank or captured 11 ships, to be eventually tracked down and sunk by the Australian cruiser Sydney (also lost), following a bloody close quarter duel. They were feared by allied crews, but in general their captains behaved according to the natural unwritten solidarity rules of sailors at sea. Upload media: Instance of: Wikimedia list article: Authority control Q1203095. The Stephen Hopkins fought one of the most gallant actions in World War II against two German raiders on September 27 about midway between Capetown and Rio de Janeiro. KMS Widder Launched in 1930 in Kiel. Sank or captured 12 ships (96,541 GRT) in her first trip, 10 more in the second, totaling 55,587 GRT. I thoroughly enjoyed this very readable account of two German commerce-raiders in the early years of WW2. British secret service “Raider-G.” Like any of its kinds, she wore a heavy armament, hidden 150 mm pieces and AA artillery in dismantled parts easy to reassemble very quickly. If it was bound for neutral ports, the cargo could resume its journey unmolested, otherwise the process was repeated, crew evacuated and the ship sunk. The Pollack conducted eleven war patrols. The cargo was then torpedoed or gunned into oblivion after been warned to evacuate, leaving a chance to the crew. Covers: Yugoslav SS Vir. Its 150 mm guns came from the old battleship Deutschland. In 1939, facing a lack of ships to launch an effective commerce war, the concept was reactivated with new ships converted, even more heavily armed than in teh first world war. Its 150 mm guns came from the battleship Schliesen. Following the British victory in the South Atlantic, the only real concern on the West Coast lay in the potential danger posed by German merchantmen in neutral ports should they be fitted out as armed commerce raiders. By Jon Guttman . Two Allied Submarines Acting as “Commerce Raiders” in the Pacific. The New Zealand cruiser Leander sank Ramb I off the Maldives (February 1941); Ramb II sailed to the Far East, where the Japanese prevented her from raiding, ultimately took her over and converted her to an auxiliary transport ship. The British deployed Armed Merchant Cruisers in World War I and in World War II. They ships were generally recent, powerful and fast, roomy and adaptable (and equipped) to fake numerous identities. The Imperial German Navy had eight of them at the start of the war in 1914 – seven in the Pacific and one in the West Indies. Atlantic - Off the coast of Brazil on the … Also it would be difficult to fit armour to a civilian vessel. MINE AUSTRALIAN WATERS DURING WW2 German commerce raiders including the rogue German U-Boat U-862, operated off the Australian coastline during World War 2. Q-ships were warships posing as merchant ships so as to lure U-boats to attack them; their mission of destroying enemy warships differed significantly from the raider objective of disrupting enemy trade. The principle was to deter potential “predators”. In that case, however, although it was over 20 years old, Rainbow was still faster than all but a few commercial vessels and adequately armed to subdue them. Hilfskreuzer on bismarck-class.dkDocumentary duel HMAS Sydney vs Kormoran. Survived the war and became the British repair ship Ulysses. Excellent book about a German WW1 commercial raider (heavily armed merchant ship aiming for oppositions cargo and transportation convoys) SMS Wolf whose role was … The Last Raider. Italy intended to outfit four refrigerated banana boats as merchant raiders during World War II (Ramb I, Ramb II, Ramb III and Ramb IV). Germany used several merchant raiders early in World War I (1914–1918), and again early in World War II (1939–1945). The captain waited until the military ship was close enough to launch an inspection party and unveiled at the last moment its true colours while revealing its artillery hidden behind folding panels, and opening fire asap, even also sometimes launching a torpedo without warning. Left: The 300-ft-long USS Pollack, like the USS Porpoise shown here, had four forward and two aft torpedo tubes, one 4‑in/50 caliber (102mm) deck gun, and four 7.62mm machine guns. 0 Reviews. But from the nineteenth century, all hulls were painted with rows of false gun ports, and this according to a stylistic tradition continued until the twentieth century. List of Japanese auxiliary cruiser commerce raiders, Marauders of the Sea, German Armed Merchant Raiders During World War 1, Wolf, Marauders of the Sea, German Armed Merchant Raiders During World War 1, Möwe, Learn how and when to remove this template message, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Merchant_raider&oldid=889881160, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2010, Articles lacking sources from February 2008, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 28 March 2019, at 15:38. They were pirates in the true and historic sense of the word and were even more successful than Germany's best U-Boats. Ran aground on a sandbar near Bergen and was scrapped in situ in 1955. World War II Commerce Raiders: German Auxiliary Cruiser Atlantis, German Auxiliary Cruiser Kormoran, German Auxiliary Cruiser Pinguin, German Night Fighter Direction Vessel Togo, German Auxiliary Cruiser Thor, German Auxiliary Cruiser Komet. Picture a commerce raider, disguised as a freighter, but armed with 5.9 inch main guns and torpedo tubes, plus mines for mine-laying, ... adventure, history, ww2, maritime-history, military-navy. Sep 10, 2017 - Naval History from ancient times to this day, medieval, enlightment and industrial era, WW1 and WW2 and the cold war. In Abrupt Reversal of Iran Strategy, Pentagon Orders Aircraft Carrier Home, Chinese Navy Faces Overseas Basing Weakness, Report Says, Maritime Leaders Will Seek Green Solutions at GreenTech Forum, Chinese Navy Faces Overseas Basing Weakness, This study will pay you to help prevent military suicides, Reestablish First Fleet: Deterrence in the Indo-Pacific, MMP missile fired with target designation provided by UAV. Only Ramb I and Ramb II served as merchant raiders and neither ship sank enemy vessels. Privateers freighters are already a very old idea: Since the Renaissance and seventeenth or eighteenth centuries, merchant ships were armed, but with a reduced artillery. During the Secession war already, the Confederate Navy largely outclassed, used armed civilian ships as commerce raiders and blockade runners, while already the young American navy used fast bricks and armed merchant clippers to attack British vessels in 1815. The “Hilfskreuzer” (auxiliary cruisers, generally complemented by “HSK”- Handels Stör Kreuzer, commerce raiders) were one of the trump cards of Admiral Raeder in his strategy. Americans had even achieved significant successes raiding British commerce in the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812. Their task was to protect Allied commerce in the South Atlantic from German surface raiders and submarines. (Ramb III served as a convoy escort and Ramb IV was converted for the Italian Royal Navy to a hospital ship.). The German Imperial Navy, before the outbreak of World war one, requested that the major German Ocean Liner and shipping companies. produce their new ships with special requirements, so that in case of war they could easily be converted … KMS Thor, South Atlantic 1940 Launched in 1939 in Hamburg as SS Santa Cruz. During World War II, elements of the United States Navy based in Brazil conducted operations in the Atlantic against German commerce raiders and blockade runners. Very fast for a cargo ship. 1st phase of German commerce warfare: Liners I personally believe commerce raiders are a great first strike option, one which we need be careful about being used against the U.S. Generally adapted from passenger liners, they were larger than the German merchant raiders. Its 150 mm guns came from pre-dreadnought Deutschland. Here are the stories of Germany’s five Pacific raiders and their amazing voyages. By megaphone, the raider’s captain then intimated his fellow counterpart to stop, while unveiling its artillery and true flag. Blueprint of the Pinguin, same class as the Atlantis. A German merchant raider emblazoned with … Q1203095 Wikimedia list article. For long range reconnaissance they embarked one of two seaplane. The commerce raiders were military ships in the form of light cruisers. The Pinguin's captain, Ernst-Felix Kruder, emerges as a forgotten hero of the war, and as a humane … Disguised as a cargo and flying neutral flags and markings or the silhouette of another ship through improvised contraptions. The successful cruise of converted merchant ship "Pinguin"is described in parallel with the much less successful raiding activities of the heavy cruiser "Hipper". I t was a gloomy morning that greeted the crew of the 7,181-ton Liberty ship Stephen Hopkins on September 27, 1942. Sunk by RAF in Swinemünde April 4, 1945. The Last Raider – July ’97 World War II Feature. They could also laid mines unsuspected, or repel strafing attacks by their AA artillery, all served by modern fire control systems. Declared total loss, scrapped in situ afterwards. General Books LLC, Aug 20, 2010 - History - 90 pages. 9 ships (HK1 to HK9) were put into service, keeping their civilian name: Orion, Atlantis, Widder, Thor, Pinguin, Stier, Komet, Kormoran and Michel. Sank or captured 10 ships (58 644 GRT) in a 180-day cruise. Known by British intelligence as “Raider E”. Covers: Dutch Beemsterdjik, Soviet SS Sovet, Japanese Maebasi Maru. The first of these were primarily warships. In 1939, facing a lack of ships to launch an effective commerce war, the concept was reactivated with new ships converted, even more heavily armed than in teh first world war. Particular targets of the British cruisers were the supply ships which replenished German submarines and surface raiders. For more than a year, the raiders waged an unremitting ‘pirate war’ that spanned half the world’s surface and ultimately cost the Allies more than 60 merchant ships. Requisitioned, armed, equipped and put into service in December 1939. Chao Yung (Chaoyong) class protected cruisers (1880), KSOE wins AiP for wing-sail propulsion system, Dive tank for subsea work under construction. Rain squalls, high winds and … Helmoed Heitman says: August 17, 2015 at 11:59 am Returning to miniature … However the results of their campaign was relatively disappointing. Formerly the bulk carrier Steiermark, it was rebuilt in Kiel in 1938-39, and completed in 1940 under the name of Schiff 41, and a profile resembling Viacheslev Molotov and Japanese Satiko and Kinka Maru (above). Such procedure did not include capture but annihilation of the opposing ship, often after allowing the crew to evacuate, by means of 150 mm reformed guns and torpedo tubes. German Commerce raiders and Auxiliary Cruisers. Originally built for the Hamburg Amerika Line the Orion commissioned on the 9th December 1939 and sailed on 6th April 1940. Sank 5 ships (41 138 GRT), participated in the destruction of 4 others. Please note that the content of this book … The most famous captain of a German merchant raider, Felix von Luckner, used the sailing ship SMS Seeadler for his voyage (1916–1917). Germany used several merchant raiders early in World War I (1914–1918), and again early in World War II (1939–1945). Christened the Sea King, she made several runs to the Far East, until … Some of their feats of seamanship are just staggerring. Pages in category "World War II commerce raiders" The following 13 pages are in this category, out of 13 total. Just as during the First World War, the German navy turned for use as auxiliary cruisers a number of recent, massive and fast freighters. Eventually most were sunk or transferred to other duties. 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