A two-masted sailboat is most likely a yawl, ketch, schooner, or brig. At the end of this article, you'll understand everything about rig type… The reason is that tall ships could be a lot longer than sloops, giving them a lot of extra hull speed. The name ketch is derived from catch. Let's start by taking a look at the most commonly used modern sail rigs. I'll go into this later on. Quick recap from part 1: the reason most boats are fore-and-aft rigged today is the increased maneuverability of this configuration. A yawl, like a ketch has two masts with the aftmost (the mizzen) shorter than the main, but in the case of a yawl, the helming position is forward of the mizzen mast. Thanks, Contribute rather than destroy another’s good work. To accommodate the lower aspect ratio sail plan all the ketches had a short bowsprit that extended the overall length to 32ft 6in. From front to back: the first mast is called the foremast. The ketch's main mast is usually stepped in the same position as in a sloop. Good question. Westerly 33. The ketch has two masts with the aftmost mast (the mizzen) shorter than the main mast forward of it. I can’t comment therefore on the accuracy of the article, but it seems clear to me that the spirit of the author is positive. The second word refers to the mast setup and amount of sails used. Brig - two masts (foremast), partially square-rigged. Square sails are good for running downwind, but they're pretty useless when you're on an upwind tack. This is part 2 of a series on sails and rig types. But first I want to discuss the three factors that make up the sail plan in more detail. What are ketch sailing vessels? Lateen sails on both masts and a jib. Hi, I'm Shawn, and when I was 2 years old, I was sailing (with my parents) on the English Channel during a proper storm (and by proper I mean something along the lines of force 10). What is the difference between a schooner and a sloop? Fun fact: polaccas were used by a Dutch sailor-turned-Turkish-pirate (called Murat Reis). Then, they continued: ” we want to buy a used Victory 40-feet ketch so that our dream can come true. Read part 1 on sail types here. The main mast carries small lateen-rigged sail. It's a simple sail plan that handles well and offers good upwind performance. The main and mizzenmast are lateen-rigged. Schooners have two masts that are fore-and-aft rigged. This may help to bring the bow into the wind when at anchor. Don't worry if you don't exactly understand what's going on. The foremast is square-rigged and the main and mizzenmast fore-and-aft. Click here to skip to the section with pictures, The Ultimate Guide to Sail Types and Rigs (with Pictures), 17 Sailboat Types Explained: How To Recognize Them, Different Types of Sailing and Racing Explained, How Are Sail Numbers Assigned? Most schooners are larger sailing vessels and tall ships these days. So there are a couple of real advantages of a ketch rig over a sloop rig. The most common sail plan is the sloop. If it's in front of the mainmast, it's called a foremast. About us The mizzen, as the slightly shorter and further aft spar is called, makes the resulting sail plan incredibly flexible. Sloop vs. Cutter I understand as an advantage of more but smaller sails, therefore easier handling and more variation according to conditions. ImproveSailing is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com. Most schooners also carry one or two additional headsails, in contrast to the single jib of the sloop. Would this be what you call lugger rig? As a rig, a yawl is a two masted, fore and aft rigged sailing vessel with the mizzen mast positioned abaft (behind) the rudder stock, or in some instances, very close to the rudder stock. So I've come up with a system. It's one of the fastest rig types for upwind sailing. Usually, the sail plan looks a lot like the sloop, but it has three headsails instead of one. These boats have an average length overall (LOA) of 55 feet. Generally, ketches will be in the 40-plus foot range. Well, I feel that I’ve learned a bit from this. All of these yacht types can be rigged differently, the two best known types being gaff-rigged, where the sail is connected to two spars, one at the top of the sail and one at the foot. Rigs can contain up to seven masts. Pity about the negative comments, but love your proactive responses! Thanks for your feedback. A ketch has two masts that are fore-and-aft rigged. So I guess this rig is outdated a long time. I must admit being in love with the ketch design, but for a newbie the sloop is easier to learn on, and less expensive to maintain. Your mizzensail provides all kinds of benefits. I live in Friesland, The Netherlands, which is famous for its great lakes and lots of sailing opportunities. What's that sail for? On a two-masted boat, the mizzenmast is always (slightly) smaller than the mainmast. Beyond that, they actually slow you down. A sail rig is the way in which the sails are attached to the mast(s). There are a lot of different sail rig types and it can be difficult to remember what's what. The extra mast is a mizzenmast. The extra sail increases maneuverability. The mizzenmast is the aft-most (rear) mast on a sailboat with three or more masts or the mast behind the mainmast on a boat with two masts. I have not seen a similar picture. The extra mast is a foremast which is generally smaller than the mainmast, but it does carry a mainsail. A schooner has two masts, whereas the sloop only has one. Chichester, West Sussex. It could have a staysail, if it is a cutter ketch. Xebec - three masts, all masts are lateen-rigged. When we talk of the sail rig we usually mean the sail plan. Copyright © 2021 ImproveSailing.com A cutter is a sloop with 2 foresails (jib, staysail) and a mainsail. In this case, the front mast isn't the foremast, but the mainmast. Mizzen without a mainsail. At the end of this article, you'll understand everything about rig types. And you have to determine the rig type, which means the way the sails are set up. Main mast with only slightly smaller foremast. Stirling and wanted to understand the ship types he references. Barques were a good alternative to full-rigged ships because they require a lot fewer sailors. A square-rigged ship is only good for downwind runs, but a fore-and-aft rigged ship can sail close to the wind, using the lift to move forward. Ketch Rig vs Sloop: Great Advantages for Cruisers - YouTube Cutters are considered better for bluewater sailing than sloops (although sloops will do fine also). Carries a mainsail on each mast, but the mainsail shape differs per mast (square or gaff). Sailing terminology can be confusing, although in the writer’s experience, the more experienced a sailor you sail with (especially racers) the more relaxed about it they become. Ketch rigs generally do not sail as fast or as close to the wind as a sloop sailboat. The main is usually stepped in location of a sloop rig, and some manufactures have used the same deck mold for both rig types. A sloop rig is a sailboat with one mast and two sails: a mainsail and headsail. Other than the addition of the Mizzen aft of the cockpit and rudder, the only difference between it and the sloop version is the E measurement is 2 feet shorter. Your subscription could not be saved. Hermaphrodite brig - also called half brig or schooner brig. Beautiful boat to see. The square-rigged sails are always attached the same way to the mast. Square-rigged sails are generally not used anymore. I’ve changed fully-rigged to full-rigged ship - which is a typo on my part. If the negative reviewers want to get a deeper technical knowledge that is accurate to the n-th then go study the appropriate material. First of all, what is a sail rig?A sail rig is the way in which the sails are attached to the mast(s). Polacca - three masts, foremast is square-rigged, the main and mizzenmast are lateen-rigged. Brigantine - two masts (foremast), partially square-rigged. One that truly gets up my nose is the term ‘fully’ rigged ship. As Glanville noted, a ketch can “turn up and down” (upwind and downwind), “go to and fro” (tacking, presumably) “almost with any wind” (in all conditions). What are the different types of sail rig? I think that may be the difference between the pointing ability of my boat as opposed to a Ketch. All masts are lateen-rigged. The three sails do not necessarily mean that the sail area on a ketch is larger than on a sloop of the same size, however. The schooner carries more sails, with a mainsail on both masts. What is the mizzenmast? Three-masted boats are mostly barques or schooners. It also allows for shorter masts. I knew a little about the subject (I’m an Aubrey-Maturin fan!) Thank you, very helpful. The way the sails are attached to the mast determines the shape of the sail. This means you reduce the stress on the rigging and the masts, which makes the ketch rig safer and less prone to wear and tear. What is the purpose of the mizzen sail? Since I’m convinced that the technique is always the same, I want to ask you which are the pros and cons of a ketch rig”. If you like to point out anything more specific, please let me know and I will update the articles. Don't worry if you don't exactly understand what's going on. It looks like the xebec, which has three lateen-rigged masts. It's actually used to drive the boat forward, and the mizzen sail, together with the headsail, are sufficient to sail the ketch. You can also choose whether or not the extra mast will carry an extra mainsail. The sail rig and sail type are both part of the sail plan. On a ketch, it's nearly as long as the mainmast and carries a mainsail. The schooner is easy to sail but not very fast. It has one mast and two sails: the main and headsail. So this is the way the sail is attached to the mast. Did you find the answer to your specific question? Please try again. Boats with two masts that have a mizzenmast are most likely a yawl or ketch. It has nothing to do with size but with the type of rigging. 8918 KM Leeuwarden I couldn't find any surviving xebecs, only models and paintings. In this part, I'll also go over the three-masted configurations, and the tall ships as well. The mainsail is ahead of the main mast (fore) and the other is aft of the mizzen mast. Fractional Sloop Rig. A sail plan is made up of: I'll explore the most common rig types in detail later in this post. A cutter has three or more sails. De Gealanden 28 That's why most sailboats you see today are (Bermuda) sloops. Needless to say, if you ever find yourself confronted by a Jackass-barque, a Brigantine and a Pentamaran and your crew ask you to explain which is which,  you’re best to just nod sagely, smile and go put the kettle on.. Professional Yachtmaster Fastrack Program, Tel (UK mobile): 07925 784407 Tel (Gibraltar office): 00 350 20077609, Professional Yachtmaster Fastrack program, What is the difference between a Sloop, Ketch, Yawl and Schooner, Professional Yachtmaster Fastrack Program. Sloops couldn't be as large because there weren't strong enough materials available. We usually use the sail rig type to refer to the type of boat. Two-masted boats can have an extra mast in front or behind the mainmast. A sloop has a mainsail and headsail configuration, the mainsail being set on the mast at its luff and and a spar at its foot called a boom. Yawl vs. Ketch. Ketch rigs hold a special place in many a cruising sailor’s heart. Later the sloop version was introduced and in the end almost only sloops rig 42E were built. The 42 (E) is an Enderlein design and not to be confused with the Frers designed Hallberg-Rassy 42 (F) that was built between 1991 and 2001. Part 1 is all about the different types of sails. Is it accurate? As they say in the Navy: “BZ” - for a good article. Why are so many of the comments here negative. A ketch is a common rig for cruising sailboats. A sloop rig has 1 mast, with a jib and mainsail. Bilander - two masts (foremast). Sloops and ketches each have their own benefits, but also disadvantages. Polacca literally means 'Polish' (it's Italian). It's a simple sail plan that allows for high performance, and you can sail it short-handed. Has two masts (foremast), partially square-rigged. In front: yawl or ketch. What is the difference between a ketch and a yawl? Lets not go there just now… Most (very) small sailboats are catboats, like the Sunfish, and many Laser varieties. First of all I have to say that Rick ‘the rigger’ is obviously the one with the “over inflated but fragile ego” and I laughed when you suggested he share his knowledge on your blog, well played! Thanks for laying it out. For example a light air sail plan, storm sail plan, and the working sail plan (which is used most of the time). It was a popular rig type in the Mediterranean in the 17th century. History Derivation of "yawl" The above is an accepted modern definition, but it may not be correct within a historical context. First of all, what is a sail rig? I want to do a quick recap of my previous article. Contact us All I will say is go learn a lot more before posting. It's one of the best racing rigs because it's able to sail very close to the wind (also called 'weatherly'). Been reading S.M. The part about being easier to learn on is particularly relevant for me as I am teaching myself how to sail. The mizzen sail provides more sail area and flexibility in sail plan. The xebec is a Mediterranean trading ship with three masts. As a verb ketch is or ketch can be (rare) to hang. Every four years I go and check them out when they are at Harlingen (which is very close to where I live). But the additional sails just give you a bit more to play with. A ketch may also use a spinnaker. ft. from linen. The rear masts are usually gaff-rigged. The sail on the mizzenmast is also called the jigger. In context|nautical|lang=en terms the difference between schooner and sloop is that schooner is (nautical) a sailing ship with two or more masts, all with fore-and-aft sails; if two masted, having a foremast and a mainmast while sloop is (nautical) a single-masted sailboat with only one headsail. A cutter is a sloop with 2 foresails(jib, staysail) and a mainsail. Yawl vs. Ketch. They are quite fast for their size, and they could outrun most sloops and schooners (schooners were relatively a lot heavier). I'm the owner of ImproveSailing. 'Yeah, that's a gaff brig, and that a Bermuda cutter' - If you don't know what this means (neither did I) and want to know what to call a two-masted ship with a square-rigged mainsail, this article is definitely for you. The partition of the sail area into more smaller sails give you more control in heavier winds as well. The schooner's mainsails are generally gaff-rigged. Balance is progressively reducing all sail. It’s probably fair to assume that for every sailing term there are at least 3 or more other pieces of jargon that fit equally as well. Just tell us the best email address to send your tips to: Improve Sailing As for the content it’s great, hope to read more soon! Most recreational sailboats use a sloop rig. A boat with two masts or more gets interesting. The mainsail of a yawl will be similar in size to that of a similarly sized and proportioned sloop. The sail is quite square and to hoist it the top gaff must be hoisted up the mast, raising the sail under it. Their boats were quicker downwind than the boats with fore-and-aft rigged sails, but they didn't handle as well. The Bermuda rig is actually based on the Lateen rig (the Dutch got inspired by the Moors). These ships use a lot of sails to distribute the forces, which reduces the stress on the rigging and the masts. Which is not to say the schooner’s not balanced – the for’ard sails versus the large main astern. I'll explain you everything there is to know about sails and rigs in this article. The fore-and-aft rig, however, has a lot of variations. Bermuda rig - most used - has a three-sided (triangular) mainsail, Gaff rig - has a four-sided mainsail, the head of the mainsail is guided by a, Lateen rig - has a three-sided (triangular) mainsail on a long yard, Junk rig - has horizontal battens to control the sail, Settee rig - Lateen with the front corner cut off, full or ship-rigged boats - also called 'ships' or 'tall ships', Lugger - two masts (mizzen), with lugsail (a cross between gaff rig and lateen rig) on both masts. Yawl - two masts (mizzen), fore-and-aft rigged on both masts. Brigs have a square-rigged foremast, schooners don't. Very popular rig for ocean crossings, so a great rig for merchants who travel long distances and don't want 30 - 50 sailors to run their ship. ImproveSailing is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com. I always look at the number of masts first, because this is the easiest to spot. The placement and size of the extra mast are important in determining what kind of boat we're dealing with. The sail rig and sail type are both part of the sail plan. It handles easier than a sloop, except for upwind, and it's only because of better technology that sloops are now more popular than the schooner. More sails mean less stress on all of them. All four variants were offered with a ketch rig that had a 54sq ft (5 square metre) mizzen, giving the same overall sail area as the sloop. It’s a FULL rigged ship!! I have a painting of a Spanish vessel, two masted, with. What is a sloop rig? In the beginning, only the ketch rig configuration was offered. 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