Flamininus had about 25,500 men, thus subdivided: 16,000 legionary infantry, 8,400 light infantry, 1,800 cavalry and 20 war elephants; further it included soldiers from the allied Aetolian League, light infantry from Athamania, and mercenary archers from Crete. T. Quinctius Flamininus, with his allies from the Aetolian League, were stationed at Thebes, and marched out towards Pherae in search of Philip, who was at Larisa. At Cynoscephalae the Macedonian's and their Greek allies suffered 10,000 dead and 5,000 taken prisoner compared to 5,000 Roman casualties. N.G.L. Philip was unable to gather his men, and he fled the battlefield as the Romans butchered the remaining Macedonians. Previous warning of The Greek city-states, led by Athens, appealed to Rome for help. During the march there was a heavy rainstorm, and the morning after there was a fog over the hills and fields separating both camps. On the arrival of the Aetolians, 'at speed he broke camp', moved into Phthiotic territory where he was joined by a force of Cretans and 'not so much later' by Amynander and his Athamanian troops, and headed for Phthiotic Thebes. By the spring of 197 BC, Philip's army stopped to forage for supplies near Pharae in the south. Generals. The Romans only lost 700 dead (mostly on their brave left), while the Antigonids lost 8,000 dead and 5,000 captured. After a brief pursuit, Flamininus allowed Philip to escape. The Roman left was chewed up by the bristling pike wall, and Nicanor's army began to crest the ridge on the King's left flank in a rushed marching formation. Definition of battle of cynoscephalae in the Definitions.net dictionary. What does battle of cynoscephalae mean? Take your favorite fandoms with you and never miss a beat. First Macedonian War. The mercenaries (except the Thracians) were commanded by Athenagoras and the second infantry corps by Nicanor the Elephant. He left his right wing in reserve, with his elephants in front, and personally led the left wing against Philip. THE CAMPAIGN AND THE BATTLE OF CYNOSCEPHALAE IN I97 BC 63 Aetolians' (xxxiii 3.8-9). Philip, though reluctant to send his phalanx into the broken, hilly terrain eventually ordered an assault with half the phalanx, 8,000 men, when he heard of the Roman retreat. The Romans had two Roman and two allied legions (20,000 legionary infantry, 2,000 velites, 2,500 equites, and 200 war elephants), plus a substantial contingent of 1,200 Epirote light infantry, 800 Cretan archers, and 6,000 infantry and 400 cavalry from the Aetolian League. Cynoscephalae, fought in Thessaly in spring 197 bce, marked the decisive and final battle of the Second Macedonian War. Flaminius advanced with the left side of his line to reinforce the battle between the scouting parties, forcing the Macedonians to retreat up the slope; many were killed, while others fled back towards their King. As the Roman left was slowly being driven back, Flamininus took command of his right and ordered an assault there. Cynoscephalae - Romans vs. Macedonians. Flamininus, still unaware of Philip's location, sent out some cavalry and light infantry to reconnoiter, which engaged Philip's troops on the hills. There was a chance encounter between the advance groups of both armies at the summit near the pass. Two hills of southeast Thessaly in northeast Greece. Historica Wiki is a FANDOM Games Community. It is generally perceived that with the later Battle of Pydna, this defeat demonstrated the superiority of the Roman legion over the Macedonian phalanx. Cynoscephalae (197 BCE) Battle of Cynoscephalae: decisive battle during the Second Macedonian War (200-197 BCE), in which the Roman general Titus Quinctius Flamininus overcame the Macedonian king Philip V. In 204, the Ptolemaic king Ptolemy IV Philopator died, leaving behind a very young successor, Ptolemy V Epiphanes. Battle of Pydna. For the earlier battle fought here, see Battle of Cynoscephalae (364 BC). Philip also had to pay 1,000 talents of silver to Rome, disband his navy, most of his army, and send his son to Rome as a hostage. Philip marched the head of his phalanx up the slope, screened by his peltasts and flanked on the right by cavarly. The Battle of Cynoscephalae (Greek: Μάχη τῶν Κυνὸς Κεφαλῶν) was an encounter battle fought in Thessaly in 197 BC between the Roman army, led by Titus Quinctius Flamininus, and the Antigonid dynasty of Macedon, led by Philip V. In 201 BC, Rome won the Second Punic War against Carthage. The Macedonian phalangites were unable to re-position themselves and form up to face this new attack as quickly as the Roman maniples could maneuver to exploit the opportunity. Flaminius was also being pushed back towards the Roman camp, so he rode over to the Roman right and ordered them to charge at the disorganized Macedonians under Nicanor, most of whom were still arriving or not yet formed up. Either the Romans did not understand this signal, or they just ignored it. There was complete panic in the Macedonian ranks. This assertion has been challenged by some who point out that the Romans were only able to attain victory by taking advantage of the fact that the Macedonian left wing was not fully formed, although this is also given as evidence of the phalanx's unwieldy nature when compared to the legion. At the Battle of Cynoscephalae (364 BC), the Theban forces of Pelopidas fought against the Thessalian troops of Alexander of Pherae in a battle in which Pelopidas was killed; nevertheless, the Thebans won. [2] Flamininus also took 5,000 prisoners. Roman consul Titus Quinctius Flamininus entered Macedon with his two Senate-provided legions to confront and dethrone King Philip V in the Second Macedonian War. Pelopidas †. Philip V of Macedon had attacked Rome's client states in the Mediterranean for 20 years. This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license. He therefore postulated up to a month's delay (111); it was accepted by Walbank in his Philip 322, but less firmly in his Commentary, p. 579. N.G.L. In 197 BC the Roman army of Titus Quinctius Flamininus, with his allies from the Aetolian League, marched out towards Pherae in search of Philip, who was at Larissa. The Battle of Cynoscephalae was fought in 197 BC between the armies of the Roman Republic and Macedon during the Second Macedonian War. They were still in column formation and thrown into disorder. The battle was decisive, leading to Rome's crushing victory over Philip V of Macedon. The Battle of Cynoscephalae (Greek: Μάχη των Κυνός Κεφαλών) was an encounter battle fought in Thessaly in 197 BC between the Roman army, led by Titus Quinctius Flamininus, and the Antigonid dynasty of Macedon, led by Philip V. Philip sent 3,500 cavalry and mercenary infantry to reinforce his skirmishers, and they pushed the Romans back down the slope and almost routed them completely, had it not been for the strategic skirmishing and harassment by the Aetolian allies. The Battle of Cynoscephalae (Greek: Μάχη τῶν Κυνὸς Κεφαλῶν) was an encounter battle fought in Thessaly in 197 BC between the Roman army, led by Titus Quinctius Flamininus, and the Antigonid dynasty of Macedon, led by Philip V. Half of Philip's troops were still foraging, so he sent his general Nicanor the Elephant to follow up when the others had returned. Now that the battle was balanced, Flamininus sent his elephants charging into the phalangites, and they panicked. Now surrounded by both wings of the Roman legion, they suffered heavy casualties and fled. They approached from opposite sides. Livy mentions that other sources claim 32,000 Macedonians were killed and even one writer who due to "boundless exaggeration" claims 40,000 but concludes that Polybius is the trustworthy source on this matter. : You are free: to share – to copy, distribute and transmit the work; to remix – to adapt the work; Under the following conditions: attribution – You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. A Roman tribune halted 20 maniples (2,500 veteran triarii troops) on the right wing and marched his contingent across the ridge to strike the victorious phalanx of Philip from the rear as it attacked the left; the veteran legionaries then renewed their assault. After breaking through and gaining ground, one of the Roman tribunes in command, stationed on the inside edge of the now advanced Roman right wing, on his own authority, detached twenty maniples (a smaller tactical unit within the legion) of heavy infantry, in total numbering about 2,000 men, spun them around and led them to the left and back to attack the Macedonian center and left wing – from behind and the side. Philip had about 26,000 men of which 16,000 were phalangites, 2,000 light infantry, 5,500 mercenaries and allies from Crete, Illyria, Thrace, plus 2,000 cavalry. For 300 years cavalry used in concert with the spear phalanx had dominated Western battlefields. Finally becoming consul in 198 BC, Flaminius was underage for the position. The phalangists charged downhill at the unprepared Romans, and the remnants of Flaminius' scouting force were unprepared and were forced back. Flaminius ordered his entire army to form up in battle order and addressed his troops at the base of the slope, professing to them that they had fought and beaten the Macedonians before. 14 Kromayer 114 dated the battle to the end of May or beginning of June. Philip's right wing was now on higher ground than the Roman left, and was at first successful against them. Born in 228 BC, he had been a military tribune in the Second Punic War. The Battle of Cynoscephalae, 197 BC, settled once and for all the age-old dispute of phalanx versus legionary warfare. The Antigonid skirmishers then urged the King to attack while momentum was on their side, and the Macedonian army deployed in battle order. Flamininus concentrated his attack on Nicanor and the Macedonian left. The general on the Roman side was Titus Quinctius Flaminius. The Romans lost about 700 killed. The Roman legions on the left did not break, and fought fiercely. The Battle of Cynoscephalae was fought in 197 BC between the armies of the Roman Republic and Macedon during the Second Macedonian War. Battle of Cynoscephalae Part of the Second Macedonian War At the Battle of Cynoscephalae (364 BC), the Theban forces of Pelopidas fought against the Thessalian troops of Alexander of Pherae in a drawn battle in which Pelopidas was killed. He abandoned his part and attacked the rear of the Macedonian right wing, taking twenty maniples. Battle of Cynoscephalae.webm 20 s, 1,156 × 810; 2.52 MB Bitwa pod Kynoskefalaj (197 pne)-1 faza.png 275 × 281; 21 KB Bitwa pod Kynoskefalaj (197 pne)-2 faza.png 296 × 281; 20 KB The Battle of Cynoscephalae is a battle that took place in 197 BC. Battle of Cynoscephalae, (197 bce ), conclusive engagement of the Second Macedonian War, in which Roman general Titus Quinctius Flamininus checked the territorial ambitions of Philip V of Macedonia and bolstered Roman influence in the Greek world. The next year, the Theban general Epaminondas avenged the defeat by a victory over Alexander.. Theban Hegemony, Cynoschephale. The combat engaged about 26,000 men on each side. was the decisive battle of the First Macedonian War, and was the first of a series of victories won by Roman legions over the Greek phalanx that ended three centuries of Greek dominance on the battlefield. After that he slowly ascended the cursus honorum. Battle of Cynoscephalae - Deployment. The battle of Cynoscephalae perfectly represent what in military terms is called "encounter battle". The battle of Cynoscephalea of 197 B.C. The Battle of Cynoscephalae by pallin. Battle of the Second Macedonian War, where the Romans and the Aetolian League defeat Macedon, Learn how and when to remove this template message, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Battle_of_Cynoscephalae&oldid=995051403, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles lacking in-text citations from April 2015, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. In any case, the result of the battle of Cynoscephalae was a fatal blow to the political aspirations of the Macedonian kingdom; Macedonia would never again be in a position to challenge Rome's geopolitical expansion. Philip then sent a small force to take the Cynoscephalae Hills (.mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}39°25′N 22°34′E / 39.417°N 22.567°E / 39.417; 22.567Coordinates: 39°25′N 22°34′E / 39.417°N 22.567°E / 39.417; 22.567). The Roman victory … The phalanx drove the Romans down the slope. battle of Cynoscephalae synonyms, battle of Cynoscephalae pronunciation, battle of Cynoscephalae translation, English dictionary definition of battle of Cynoscephalae. The two armies both marched up the slope without knowing the other army's intentions, and both armies came into view of one another at the top of the hill. Although the peace that followed allowed Philip to keep his kingdom intact, Flamininus proclaimed that other Greek states previously under Macedonian domination were now free. However Philip's left wing and center, commanded by Nicanor, never managed to form up properly. Thessaly. Meaning of battle of cynoscephalae. Events by cover : Works (3) Titles: Order: Roman Conquests: Macedonia and Greece by Philip Matyszak: SPQR by Richard H. Berg: Taken at the Flood: The Roman Conquest of Greece by Robin Waterfield: Related events. Coordinates: 39°21′36″N 22°49′48″E  /  39.36°N 22.83°E  / Commanders and leaders. Information and translations of battle of cynoscephalae in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. Meanwhile, Philip's phalanx had reached the summit, and after joining with their light troops and cavalry which he placed on his right wing, Philip had his phalanx charge down the hill into the oncoming legionaries. Despite this, Philip resumed his march, and his troops became confused and disoriented due to heavy fog. Hammond, "The Campaign and Battle of Cynoscephalae in 197 BC" in, This page was last edited on 18 December 2020, at 23:39. The roman victory in the battle of Cynoscephalae ( 197 BC ) marked the end of the second macedonian war between Rome and Philip V, king of Macedon. On the ridge of Cynoscephalae hills met for first light infantry units of the two armies, while the bulk of the troops was still in march and was converging towards the battlefield. The Macedonian left wing had arrived on the summit. The Battle of Cynoscephalae (Greek: Μάχη τῶν Κυνὸς Κεφαλῶν) was an encounter battle fought in Thessaly in 197 BC between the Roman army, led by Titus Quinctius Flamininus, and the Antigonid dynasty of Macedon, led by Philip V. (en) 25بك المحتوى هنا ينقصه الاستشهاد بمصادر. Hammond, "The Campaign and Battle of Cynoscephalae in 197 BC" in Journal of Hellenic Studies 108 (1988) Polybius, Histories, Bk XVIII.19-27. The Macedonians raised their sarissas as a symbol of surrender. When Flamininus began his march to Larisa he had under his command about 32,500 to 33,400 soldiers. The Roman right attacked the Macedonians and were more successful than the Roman left. The Battle of Cynoscephalae, fought in 197 B.C., ended the second of Rome’s four Macedonian Wars, securing a place in history for the Roman consul Titus Quinctius Flamininus, checking the power of the Antigonid King Philip V, and imposing a brutal peace that laid the groundwork for the Third Macedonian War against Philip’s son Perseus. Illyrian Wars. The Antigonid and Roman cavalry clashed on the wing as the light infantry skirmished, but the main clash was in the center. Cynoscephalae synonyms, Cynoscephalae pronunciation, Cynoscephalae translation, English dictionary definition of Cynoscephalae. The two armies met at the sloping ridge of Cynoscephalae in Thessaly. https://historica.fandom.com/wiki/Battle_of_Cynoscephalae?oldid=259200. Battle of Cynoscephalae (364 BC): | | |For the later, and better-known battle fought here, see |Battle of Cynoscephal... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled. After Roman scouts spotted the Macedonians, Titus Flaminius and his army marched north from Boeotia, hoping to intercept Philip before he could withdraw. The phalangists, who were not deployed rigidly, were crushed, and many were killed outright or chased away by the legionaries. The end of 198 BC saw the Roman army of Titus Flaminius withdraw for the winter as King Philip V of Macedon raised a new army which included both youths and old men. If matters had concluded right there, the result would have been indecisive with the loss of a wing on each side. It features in Rome: Total War as a historical battle. Besides the usual Roman troops and auxiliary units that would appear in any Roman army Flamininus's forces also included soldiers from the allied Aetolian League, light infantry from Athamania, mercenary archers from Crete, and elephants and Numi… Philip's skirmishers were sent to the ridge's summit to get a better view, but they met ten Roman cavalry squadrons and 1,000 velites, and both forces skirmished before informing their commanders of the other army's positions. Events: Battle of Cynoscephalae. Flaminius sent 2,000 Aetolian infantry and 500 cavalry to the ridge as reinforcements, and the Antigonid skirmishing force slowly withdrew to the top of the ridge and requested aid from Philip. In an unexpected encounter, the more flexible Roman force drew out the Macedonian phalanx and used the terrain to break it … noun 1. the fields in Thessaly where in 197 BC the Romans defeated the Macedonians • Instance Hypernyms: ↑region, ↑part • Part Holonyms: ↑Thessalia, ↑Thessaly 2. the battle that ended the second Macedonian War (197 BC); the Romans defeated Philip You take the role of the Roman army as it moves to defeat the Macedonian army of King Philip V of Macedon. The right half of the Macedonian phalanx was formed in double depth and they advanced downhill against the Roman left wing. For the earlier battle fought here, see Battle of Cynoscephalae (364 BC). The sunrise led to the fog dissipating, but Flaminius' men were demoralized at the sight of their men retreating. Each commander knew that their counterpart was close, but the fog caused disorientation among the two armies. Philip had 16,000 sarissa-wielding phalangists, 2,000 agema peltasts, 4,000 Illyrian and Thracian mercenaries, 1,500 Greek hoplite mercenaries, and 2,000 Thessalian and Macedonian cavalry. 15 Livy's statement is vague. External links Battle of Cynoscephalae, 197 B.C. In an unexpected encounter, the more flexible Roman force drew out the Macedonian phalanx and used the terrain to break it up before closing to attack from the front and from both flanks. According to Polybius and Livy, 8,000 Macedonians had been killed. A group of Macedonian phalangists raised their pikes to the sky to surrender, but the furious legionaries charged in and massacred all of them. The phalanx, though very powerful head on, was not as flexible as the Roman manipular formation and thus unable to adapt to changing conditions on the battlefield or break away from an engagement if necessary. Philip's influence within Greece was now forever broken and he was essentially confined thereafter within Macedonia itself. Cynoscephalae was the first battle in the campaign of Roman imperialism against Macedonia and the eastern Mediterranean. Third Macedonian War. Cynoscephalae, (Greek: “Dogs’ Heads”), ancient range of hills in Thessaly, Greece, 7 miles (11 km) west of modern Vólos.It was the site of the victory (197 bc) that ended the Second Macedonian War when the Romans under Titus Quinctius Flamininus defeated Philip V of Macedon. Flamininus saw his only hope was attacking the Macedonian left. The battle of Cynoscephalae was a turning point in military history. They were easily routed and pursued. It was also the first clash of two rival military systems: the Greek spear phalanx and the Roman sword legion. The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). The battle of Cynoscephalae. He had the elephants followed by his right wing go uphill against the enemy's left wing. Cynoscephalae (Greek Kynos kephalai, literally “dogs’ heads”), a range of hills in Thessaly (Greece), northwest of Thebes. Define battle of Cynoscephalae. It might be outdated or ideologically biased. This intuitive maneuver caused the inflexible phalanx to fragment, and many of its phalangists were killed. Battle of Cynoscephalae Area Today A map of the area around the battle positions Battle of Cynoscephalae summary. The battle on the hills grew fierce and Flamininus sent 500 cavalry and 2,000 infantry as reinforcements, mostly Aetolians, forcing Philip's men to withdraw further up the hill. The Roman victory was achieved through the initiative of a tribune, whose name is unknown. Philip now sent more men into the melee, his Macedonian and Thessalian cavalry, who drove the Romans down the hill, until the Aetolian cavalry stabilized the situation. 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