Grizzly bears normally range in colouration from dark brown to blond, but a white bear is incredibly rare. Grizzly bear habitat effectiveness model for Banff, Yoho, and Kootenay National Parks, Canada. and R.H. Russell. 2011. The reproductive biology of female grizzly bears in the Northern Continental Divide Ecosystem with supplemental data from the Yellowstone Ecosystem. 2002. Who killed Mary? 1991), Grizzly Bears in the Flathead feed largely on roots (especially Hedysarum spp., which is the case throughout much of the Grizzly Bear range in Canada [Pengelly and Hamer 2006]) and ungulates in early spring and again in late fall (McLellan and Hovey 1995). Kitikmeot Area Biologist, Government of Nunavut. 224 pp. Pages 15-25 in M. Taylor, ed. Muskox bull killed by a barren-ground grizzly bear, Thelon Game Sanctuary, N.W.T. Numbers show locations of reported observations, including purported sightings of animals, tracks, and hunter kills. Grizzly Bear habitat in northeast Manitoba is almost entirely publicly owned (contained within Crown lands and Wapusk National Park). 2009). 2005. Hobson, M. Branigan, and J.A. In Nunavut, Grizzly Bears hibernate from October or November to April or May; exact timing is weather-dependent (Nirlungayuk 2008). 2001b. Eurasian distribution of the Brown or Grizzly Bear, Ursus arctos (McLellan, Figure 5. comm. Box 2703, Whitehorse YT Y1A 2C6. Movements of Yellowstone grizzly bears. Robbins, and T.A. The map above shows in green the total current distribution of the phylogenetically unique Clade 4 grizzly bears in North America relative to, in yellow, the distribution of this Clade circa 1800. Wildlife Research Series No. 2005. 2009. 2000. Gibeau, M.L. Generally they are called grizzly bear when they are inland. Website accessed August 1, 2011: http://www.environmentyukon.gov.yk.ca/huntingtrapping/biggame.php#grizzly. Most northerly observation of a grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) in Canada: photographic and DNA evidence from Melville Island, Northwest Territories. January 2012. For example, in the Yukon North Slope portion of the Inuvialuit Settlement Region, people hunt Grizzly Bears in the spring when their hides are worth the most (Wildlife Management Advisory Council (North Slope) and the Aklavik Hunters and Trappers Committee 2008).In the late 1980s, Aklavik Inuvialuit became concerned that the harvest of Grizzly Bears on parts of their lands was too high, undermining productivity and the long-term abundance of Grizzly Bears. Foremost in importance among habitat alterations are those that convert Grizzly Bear habitat to areas that will not be suitable for bears either permanently or over long periods of time (Horejsi 1989; Stronen 2000; Shuswap Indian Band 2008). vii + 91 pp. Boyce. The duration of den occupancy is related to latitude, with bears at higher latitudes entering dens earlier and remaining denned longer (Schwartz et al. DNA survey-based estimates are available for Canadian or transboundary populations in Alberta and southeastern BC (Proctor et al. 2004. 19. Many jurisdictions have less than optimal habitat despite high primary productivity, where fragmentation has reduced the functionality of habitat (e.g., at the fringes of Grizzly Bear range in Alberta). 1982. Gwich’in Renewable Resources Board (GRRB), P.O. August 2010. A retrospective evaluation of the effectiveness of aversive conditioning on grizzly bears in Peter Lougheed Provincial Park, Alberta, Canada. Victoria, BC. The hunting season for grizzly bears in British Columbia is permanently closed. 1999b). 2006). Approximately 7.1% of the range currently occupied by the Grizzly Bear in Canada is classified as ‘protected’ from human activity (to varying degrees) by federal, provincial, or territorial governments. Boyce, R.L. Wakkinen, W.L. Hybridization is also known from pre-historic times. 5:567­-575. Policy Sciences. Waits, L.P., S.L. 3. are critically important to Grizzly Bears in Pacific drainages and the Yukon River watershed (Hilderbrand et al. The impact of landscape disturbance on grizzly bear habitat use in the Foothills Model Forest, Alberta, Canada. Grizzly bears will defend their own individual space, their cubs, and food. Females emerging from dens with cubs or yearlings were lighter than solitary females, and had less fat and lower lean body mass, indicating the relative costs of hibernation, gestation, and lactation (Hilderbrand et al. No significant reduction in distribution in Canada has been documented since COSEWIC’s original assessment of the Grizzly Bear in 1991 (Banci 1991). McLellan et al. Zoologische Garten 1876:20-22. Image copyright iStockphoto / DesireeDPatterson. 2005). and P.D. 2008) suggests that the Grizzly Bears are becoming more common in the Low to mid-Arctic tundra regions of northwest Canada (Figure 6). PLoS ONE 5(11): e13870. Although Grizzly Bears have no natural predators, a potential limiting factor of population growth is intraspecific predation. Grizzly Bears have large home ranges, averaging 1,800 km² for males and 700 km² for females; however, home range size varies widely across Canada, showing an inverse relationship with habitat productivity. Grizzly Bears lack specific legal status in Manitoba, Quebec, and Newfoundland and Labrador, other than that generally afforded to wildlife. ‘Grizzly Bear’ is most often used in North America; however, the term Brown Bear is also common when describing populations from the west coast of British Columbia (BC) and Alaska. Draft July 15, 2004. 1998). Grizzly Bears in the Flathead drainage of southeast BC occur at a density at least twice as high as any other reported interior population (Table 3). In the Low Arctic tundra of NT and Nunavut, male Grizzly Bears move faster than females in all seasons (McLoughlin et al. 18 pp+app. The 2002 NT estimate may still include Nunavut bears, hence there is possible double-counting between NU and NT in 2002. Map of subpopulations of grizzly bears in the trans-border area and Alberta derived from the fragmentation synthesis. COSEWIC status reports are working documents used in assigning the status of wildlife species suspected of being at risk. On the prairies, grizzlies lacked areas of shelter for retreat, so became accustomed to … Males often have lower survival than females (Table 2), possibly due to a greater propensity for males to be hunted by and run into conflict with humans. Ministry of Environment, Victoria, British Columbia.Arctic Borderlands Ecological Knowledge Co-op. The thick line on the right indicates the bounds of non-vagrant Grizzly Bear distribution as interpreted by McLoughlin (2001). Selection of clearcuts by grizzly bears in west-central Alberta. How population density translates into population size throughout the different jurisdictions in Canada is presented in Population Size and Trends. pp. 2002; Boulanger et al. Refinement of taxonomic criteria (Rausch 1963) led to the widely accepted identification of two subspecies, U. a. middendorffi, identifying the very large Brown Bears from the Kodiak Island archipelago, and U. a. horribilis, for the remainder of North America. BC has the largest number of Grizzly Bears, with approximately 15,000 animals. Bath, A.J. December 2010. 2007); however, sightings are becoming more frequent. In Wapusk National Park, Manitoba, seven of nine known encounters have occurred since 2003 (Rockwell et al. 2005; 2012). 1999b). MacHutchon, A.G. 1996. This compulsion to generate fat stores adequate to minimize muscle catabolism during hibernation drives foraging and directs much Grizzly Bear behaviour during late summer and autumn. Management plan for grizzly bears in Alberta. Additionally, the attractants usually associated with human homes (refuse, pet food, livestock) dictate that bears with home ranges overlapping permanent human habitation are at elevated risk of mortality (McLellan 1994; Ciarniello et al. [Polish with English summary. Foothills Model Forest Grizzly Bear Research Project. Mattson, D.J., M.G. 26 pp. Ecosystem Branch Conservation Planning Section, Ministry of Environment Government of British Columbia, P.O. Inuvialuit wildlife studies: grizzly bear research. Data presented in ASRDACA (2010) as compiled by P. McLoughlin.6 The proportion of females having cubs if not nursing a previous litter was 0.42 at age four, with no records for earlier ages having cubs. The species has been observed in parts of the Low Arctic mainland and Arctic Archipelago throughout the 20th century (review in Doupé et al. Yes, in southern Alberta and BC where fragmentation at the southern extent of Grizzly Bear range is occurring. The analysis of Doupé et al. and T. Merrill. Rates and causes of natural mortality are difficult to assess, which is generally only possible by following radio-collared animals. Hovey. Servheen, C. 1990. For this report, a protected area refers to an area, such as a park or reserve, which includes in its mandate the protection of Grizzly Bears and/or their habitat. 2005. Proceedings of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences 272: 2409-2416. December 2010. Collisions involving motor vehicles and large animals in Canada. Unpublished report, provided by P.C. Changes in runs of salmon stocks are of concern for Grizzly Bears as well as other species across most of their range (Horejsi et al. Grizzly bear population estimate and characteristics in the Anderson and Horton Rivers area, Northwest Territories, 1987-89. International Conference on Bear Research and Management 9:213-221. In some regions Grizzly Bears are mostly carnivorous; they can be both efficient predators and scavengers. 2005. A study of grizzly bears on the barren-grounds of Tuktoyaktuk Peninsula and Richards Island, Northwest Territories, 1974 to 1978. 1989. Public attitudes towards bears: implications to the management of black and grizzly bears in the Yukon. 2003; Apps et al. Ciarniello, L.M., M.S. 1990. Hotson, Christopher. Écoscience 10: 11–16. However, in the Owikeno Lake area of southern BC, where there have been historical declines in numbers of salmon reaching spawning areas, Boulanger et al. 1989c. Abundance and density of Central Purcell, South Purcell, Yahk, and South Selkirk Grizzly Bear Population Units in southeast British Columbia. 1989b. 2000). Population viability of barren-ground grizzly bears in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories. Whitehorse, YK and Aklavik, NWT. The Western Grizzly Bear DU numbers approximately 26,000 bears (Table 4). Aune. 1996. Grizzly Bears occur from sea level to high-elevation alpine environments. Park Science 27. Use of ungulates by Yellowstone grizzly bears. 1998. August 2010. Not all black bear have black fur. For example, in the Aklavik area Grizzly Bears may rely on carrion along river shores early in the fall (Wildlife Management Advisory Council (North Slope) and the Aklavik Hunters and Trappers Committee 2008). In BC, guided outfitting operations with a Grizzly Bear-hunt component generate about $2.6–3.3 million per year (Province of British Columbia 1995; Parker and Gorter 2003). Figure 2. Successful cross-matings in captivity have produced fertile offspring (Martin 1876, 1882; Kowalska 1962, 1965, 1969). Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2004. To varying degrees, several of these genetic population clusters have been in the process of expansion and reconnection, likely over the past decade or so. Niwot, CO, USA. Where available, Army Cutworm moths (Euxoa auxiliaris), ants, and earthworms may be important seasonal foods (Mattson et al. Historically and at present, Grizzly Bears have been hunted by some Aboriginal peoples for sustenance and cultural purposes (e.g., Hallowell 1926; Shuswap Indian Band 2008; Clark and Slocombe 2011). Effect of seasonal differences in dietary meat intake on changes in body mass and composition in wild and captive brown bears. Paetkau, D., L. P. Waits, P. L. Clarkson, L. Craighead, and C. Strobeck. In all jurisdictions, Grizzly Bear deaths are subject to compulsory reporting. 2003a). Stenhouse. In the central and northern part of Grizzly Bear range in Canada, estimates are not available for individual populations, but general trends are assumed to be stable, with increasing trends and population expansion evident into arctic regions. 1987; Proctor et al. 35 pp. 2003). For most polar bears, seals are the main part of their diet. Seemingly productive areas, like road clearances and valley bottoms where human densities are high, may also expose bears to higher rates of human-caused mortality and thus act like ecological traps (Herrero et al. Independent Biologist. 1997. 556-586. Although M.A. Many food-habit studies have been reported, and thorough reviews are provided by LeFranc et al. Paquet. Endangered (E)A wildlife species facing imminent extirpation or extinction. Report prepared for B.C. 2001a. (2005) observed that only one of 11 males died a natural death, whereas natural and non-natural mortality rates were similar for females. Female movement rates peak during summer when, in this area, food availability is low. August 2010. Black bears can be found as far south as central Mexico and as far north as northern Alaska and most of Canada. In coastal regions of Alaska and Canada they are generally referred to as brown bear. 1973. Contemporary drivers of fragmentation and measurement of their effects on animal diversity. Wildlife and Ecosystem Protection Branch, Manitoba Department of Conservation Box 24, 200 Saulteaux Crescent, Winnipeg MB R3J 3W3. Although microsatellite analysis has demonstrated pronounced genetic structure in the southern portion of Grizzly Bear range in Canada (Proctor et al. Guo, and G. Stenhouse. Great Divide SAGD Expansion Project Environmental Impact Assessment, Calgary, AB. Estimating population size of grizzly bears using hair capture, DNA profiling, and mark-recapture analysis. Schwartz, C.T. and P.I. Clark, D. 2007. L.-P. Tardif and Associates Inc., Nepean, Ontario, Canada. Rode, K.D., C.T. However, if they continue hunting and exceed their quota for female bears, their quota in the following three-year term will be affected. Hood, G. A., and K. L. Parker. Milakovic, B., K.L. Canadian Wildlife Service, Suite 301, 5204 - 50th Ave., Yellowknife NT X1A 1E2. Barclay. 2003. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Parks Service, Denver, CO. Shaw, J., B. Benn, and C. Lambert. Lefebvre, M. 1972. Traditional Use of Grizzly Bear in the Richardson Mountains, NT. Grizzly Bear: This image shows the distinctive hump that is located on a grizzly bear's back between the front shoulder blades. 1987). Oecologia 128:62-71. and B.N. 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