(Grades 6-8), Comparison of Human and Chimp Chromosomes (Grades 9-12), Hominid Cranial Comparison: The "Skulls" Lab (Grades 9-12), Investigating Common Descent: Formulating Explanations and Models (Grades 9-12). 1.8 MYA. robustus. However, it is much debated whether or not Paranthropus is an invalid grouping and is synonymous with Australopithecus, so the species is also often classified as Australopithecus aethiopicus. This contrasts with other primates which flash the typically engorged canines in agonistic display (the canines of Paranthropus are comparatively small). Compared to other robust species, P. boisei has a larger cranial capacity (500-550 cc), a more vertically set face, and a sagittal crest on the mid-brain case, as opposed to the posterior.  During the Pleistocene, there seems to have been coastal and montane forests in Eastern Africa. PLoS One 3, e2044. Like other members of the Paranthropus genus, P. boisei is characterized by a specialized skull with adaptations for heavy chewing.  In the upper jaw, the 1st molar averages roughly 250 mm2 (0.39 sq in), the 2nd molar 320 mm2 (0.50 sq in), and the 3rd molar 315 mm2 (0.488 sq in); in the lower jaw, the 1st molar averages roughly 260 mm2 (0.40 sq in), the 2nd molar 315 mm2 (0.488 sq in), and the 3rd molar 340 mm2 (0.53 sq in). habilis. This would mean that, like chimps, they often inhabited areas with an average diurnal temperature of 25 °C (77 °F), dropping to 10 or 5 °C (50 or 41 °F) at night.  It is possible that P. aethiopicus evolved even earlier, up to 3.3 mya, on the expansive Kenyan floodplains of the time. Cranial capacity in this species suggests a slight rise in brain size (about 100 cc in 1 million years) independent of brain enlargement in the genus Homo. More expansive river valleys–namely the Omo River Valley–may have served as important refuges for forest-dwelling creatures. , Australopithecines are generally considered to have had a faster, apelike growth rate than modern humans largely due to dental development trends. In 1988, Falk and Tobias demonstrated that hominins can have both an occipital/marginal and transverse/sigmoid systems concurrently or on opposite halves of the skull, such as with the P. boisei specimen KNM-ER 23000.  The molars are bunodont, featuring low and rounded cusps.  In 2015, based on OH 80, American palaeoanthropologist Michael Lague recommended assigning the isolated humerus specimens KNM-ER 739, 1504, 6020, and 1591 from Koobi Fora to P.  Biologist Robert A. Martin considered population models based on the number of known specimens to be flimsy. Brain size was about 450–550 cc (27–34 cu in), similar to other australopithecines.  The remains were clearly australopithecine (not the genus Homo), and at the time, the only australopithecine genera described were Australopithecus by Raymond Dart and Paranthropus (the South African P. robustus) by Robert Broom, and there were arguments that Paranthropus was synonymous with Australopithecus. Unlike P. robustus, the arm bones of OH 80 are heavily built, and the elbow joint shows similarities to that of modern gibbons and orangutans. It was originally placed into its own genus as "Zinjanthropus boisei", but is now relegated to Paranthropus along with other robust australopithecines.  To explain why P. boisei was associated with Oldowan tools despite not being the tool maker, Louis Leakey and colleagues, when describing H. habilis in 1964, suggested that one possibility was P. boisei was killed by H. habilis, perhaps as food. Carbon isotope analyses report a diet of predominantly C4 plants, such as low quality and abrasive grasses and sedges. Richard je 1969. u Koobi Fori blizu … In baboons, this stage occurs when the 1st molar is about to erupt from the gums.  The hand of KNM-ER 47000 shows Australopithecus-like anatomy lacking the third metacarpal styloid process (which allows the hand to lock into the wrist to exert more pressure), a weak thumb compared to modern humans, and curved phalanges (finger bones) which are typically interpreted as adaptations for climbing. Specimen Age: Young adult. afarensis. Cranial Capacity: 530 cc. Also known as Australopithecus boisei Sites: East Africa: Rift Valley sites such as Turkana and Olduvai Gorge Age: 2.3 to 1.0 mya Type specimen: Zinjanthropus (Olduvai Gorge) Specimens: ER 1470, 1813, 1500, Omo L 323, OH5, Omo L. 7a-125 Cranial capacity: 510 cm3 Cranial architecture: Flared zygomatic arches to accommodate large temporal and massester muscles. This species lived in environments that were dominated by grasslands but also included more closed, wet habitats associated with rivers and lakes. Sex: Male.  In 1983, French anthropologist Roger Saban stated that the parietal branch of the middle meningeal artery originated from the posterior branch in P. boisei and P. robustus instead of the anterior branch as in earlier hominins, and considered this a derived characteristic due to increased brain capacity. , The wide range of size variation in skull specimens seems to indicate a great degree of sexual dimorphism with males being notably bigger than females. Nonetheless, despite lacking a particularly forceful precision grip like Homo, the hand was still dextrous enough to handle and manufacture simple tools. Fossil material attributed to this hominid — one of the robust australopithecines — range from about 2.4 to 2.7 million years in age. For example, if the South African A. sediba (which evolved from A. africanus) is considered the ancestor or closely related to the ancestor of Homo, then this could allow for A. africanus to be placed more closely related to Homo than to Paranthropus. Attribution of the tools was promptly switched to the bigger-brained H. habilis upon its description in 1964. He later found material at Kromdraai, and because the molar teeth were more primitive at that site, he changed the species name at Swartkrans to P. crassidens but used P. robustus for the Kromdraai material.  The microwearing on P. boisei molars is different than that on P. robustus molars, and indicates that P. boisei, unlike P. robustus, very rarely ever ate hard foods. Estimated Weight: 70 kg. Choose from 9 different sets of Paranthropus boisei DISC flashcards on Quizlet. P. boisei was originally believed to have been a specialist of hard foods, such as nuts, due to its heavily built skull, but it was more likely a generalist feeder of predominantly abrasive C4 plants, such as grasses or underground storage organs. In the first course that I took in physical anthropology, I was most fascinated by the Paranthropus boisei face from Olduvai Gorge (see Figures 18.1 and 18.5) and the Natron/Peninj mandible from the Peninj site near Lake Natron. :106–107, P. aethiopicus is the earliest member of the genus, with the oldest remains, from the Ethiopian Omo Kibish Formation, dated to 2.6 million years ago (mya) at the end of the Pliocene. , In 1980, anthropologists Tom Hatley and John Kappelman suggested that early hominins (convergently with bears and pigs) adapted to eating abrasive and calorie-rich underground storage organs (USOs), such as roots and tubers. The jaws are the main argument for monophyly, but such anatomy is strongly influenced by diet and environment, and could in all likelihood have evolved independently in P. boisei and P. robustus. :108–109 In 1997, the first specimen with both the skull and jawbone (and also one of the largest specimens), KGA10-525, was discovered in Konso. In contrast, the P. robustus hand is not consistent with climbing. The arm and hand bones of OH 80 and KNM-ER 47000 suggest P. boisei was arboreal to a degree and was possibly capable of manufacturing tools. :109 P. boisei changed remarkably little over its nearly 1 million year existence. , The first identified jawbone, Peninj 1, was discovered Lake Natron just north of Olduvai Gorge in 1964. This species was nicknamed Nutcracker Man for its big teeth and strong chewing muscles, which attached to the large crest on the skull. In 1979, a year after describing A. afarensis from East Africa, anthropologists Donald Johanson and Tim D. 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