These things were provided by the cults that the king oversaw, with their priests and laborers. at Dashur (Lipke 1984, 64; Steffy 1994, 25-27, 32-36, Patch and Haldane 1990). , Confronting these blurred distinctions between gods and other beings, scholars have proposed various definitions of a "deity".  Atum was primarily male but had a feminine aspect within himself, who was sometimes seen as a goddess, known as Iusaaset or Nebethetepet.  Although the combinations, manifestations, and iconographies of each god were constantly shifting, they were always restricted to a finite number of forms, never becoming fully interchangeable in a monotheistic or pantheistic way. Because deities were the upholders of maat, morality was connected with them. Pharaohs were the god kings of ancient Egypt who ruled between 3150 B.C. , At the end of the Old Kingdom a new body of funerary spells, which included material from the Pyramid Texts, began appearing in tombs, inscribed primarily on coffins.  Richard H. Wilkinson, however, argues that some texts from the late New Kingdom suggest that as beliefs about the god Amun evolved he was thought to approach omniscience and omnipresence, and to transcend the limits of the world in a way that other deities did not. The few women who made themselves pharaohs, such as Hatshepsut, connected themselves with these same goddesses while adopting much of the masculine imagery of kingship. It centered on the Egyptians' interactions with many deities believed to be present in, and in control of the world. Ancient Egyptian Gods and Goddesses. , Nine, the product of three and three, represents a multitude, so the Egyptians called several large groups "Enneads", or sets of nine, even if they had more than nine members.  Kings' wives and mothers were likened to many goddesses. The ancient Egyptian goddess of love, sexuality, fertility and war, Anat came from Canaan or Syria originally. There they inhabited the cult images, the statues that depicted deities and allowed humans to interact with them in temple rituals. , This divine assemblage had a vague and changeable hierarchy. The Greek concept of Elysium may have derived from the Egyptian vision of the afterlife.  In a hybrid image, the head represents the original form of the being depicted, so that, as the Egyptologist Henry Fischer put it, "a lion-headed goddess is a lion-goddess in human form, while a royal sphinx, conversely, is a man who has assumed the form of a lion.  Gods could be ascribed many bas and kas, which were sometimes given names representing different aspects of the god's nature. Nevertheless, the withdrawal of state support for the other deities severely disrupted Egyptian society. All were paid with portions of the temple's income. , Hornung's arguments have greatly influenced other scholars of Egyptian religion, but some still believe that at times the gods were more unified than he allows. Any visible manifestation of a god's power could be called its ba; thus, the sun was called the ba of Ra. Akhenaten ceased to fund the temples of other deities and erased gods' names and images on monuments, targeting Amun in particular. Hymns were written to praise particular deities.  But overall, what little is known about popular religious belief is consistent with the elite tradition. They focus on different gods, each of which may act as creator deities.  Places and concepts could inspire the creation of a deity to represent them, and deities were sometimes created to serve as opposite-sex counterparts to established gods or goddesses. , The gods were believed to manifest in many forms. Outside the temple were artisans and other laborers who helped supply the temple's needs, as well as farmers who worked on temple estates. At the same time, Osiris's death and rebirth were related to the Egyptian agricultural cycle, in which crops grew in the wake of the Nile inundation, and provided a template for the resurrection of human souls after death.  People did have less direct means of interaction. He was syncretized with Ra, the long-established patron of kingship and his temple at Karnak in Thebes became Egypt's most important religious center.  Male gods were believed to have the active role in conceiving children. Ra was connected with the local deity Sobek to form Sobek-Ra; with his fellow ruling god, Amun, to form Amun-Ra; with the solar form of Horus to form Ra-Horakhty; and with several solar deities as Horemakhet-Khepri-Ra-Atum. , Official religious practices, which maintained maat for the benefit of all Egypt, were related to, but distinct from, the religious practices of ordinary people, who sought the gods' help for their personal problems. Therefore, although the Egyptians recognized that the pharaoh was human and subject to human weakness, they simultaneously viewed him as a god, because the divine power of kingship was incarnated in him. They contain seemingly contradictory ideas, each expressing a particular perspective on divine events. According to these stories, the world emerged as a dry space in the primordial ocean of chaos.  In myth, the gods behave much like humans. They are known mainly from inscriptions on statues and stelae left in sacred sites as votive offerings. , Myths are metaphors for the gods' actions, which humans cannot fully understand.  Morality in ancient Egypt was based on the concept of maat, which, when applied to human society, meant that everyone should live in an orderly way that did not interfere with the well-being of other people.  The king and the nation he represented provided the gods with maat so they could continue to perform their functions, which maintained maat in the cosmos so humans could continue to live.  Living kings were equated with Horus and called the "son" of many male deities, particularly Osiris and Ra; deceased kings were equated with these elder gods. The pharaohs’ tombs were meant to preserve their bodies and souls. The official ancient Egyptian religion lasted from about 3110 bce to 550 ce. The ancient Egyptian civilization has been blessed with a vast long history so when it comes to archaeological discoveries, very few countries can measure up to the ancient Egyptian artifacts.. For more than 4000 years the ancient Egyptian civilization created some of the most enchanting and beautiful artifacts the world as ever seen that remains … Others have argued that the most important predynastic gods were, like other elements of Egyptian culture, present all across the country despite its political divisions. Henotheism, Hornung says, describes Egyptian religion better than other labels.  However, the most important temple festivals, like the Opet Festival celebrated at Karnak, usually involved a procession carrying the god's image out of the sanctuary in a model barque to visit other significant sites, such as the temple of a related deity. The red symbol on the left shoulder, which can easily be mistaken for a swastika, is actually an ancient Greek symbol for holiness, while at the bottom, the boat of Sokar (a form of the Egyptian sun god) is flanked by jackals.  Closely connected deities did sometimes merge. 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