[5] Well-known musicians included the fiddler Pattie Birnie (c. 1635–1721) and the piper Habbie Simpson (1550–1620). [3], The first clear reference to the use of the Highland bagpipes is from a French history, which mentions their use at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh in 1547. The referendum resulted in a narrow Yes majority but fell short of the 40% requirement. [10] The same constraints apply to acts of the Scottish Executive. Major performers included James Scott Skinner. The School of Scottish Studies was founded at University of Edinburgh in 1951, with Henderson as a research fellow and a collection of songs begun by Calum Maclean (1915–60). Scottish music is a huge part of Scottish culture. Dance, Festival, Music, Opera, Physical Theatre, Theatre. [14], From 1999 until the opening of the new building in 2004, committee rooms and the debating chamber of the Scottish Parliament were housed in the General Assembly Hall of the Church of Scotland located on The Mound in Edinburgh. After the Reformation, the secular popular tradition of music continued, despite attempts by the Kirk, particularly in the Lowlands, to suppress dancing and events like penny weddings. These include Hebridean singer Julie Fowlis, 'Gaelic supergroup' Dàimh, and Lau. Living History. Thereafter, responsibility for Scotland lay primarily with the office of the Secretary of State for the Northern Department, usually exercised by the Lord Advocate. The former based their hit "Belfast Child" around the traditional Irish song "She Moved Through the Fair" and incorporated accordion into their line-up, while the latter's guitar and drum sounds on their early albums were heavily influenced by Scottish pipe bands, particularly on songs such as "In a Big Country" and "Fields of Fire." While fairly popular within folk circles, none of these groups achieved the success of Irish groups such as The Chieftains and The Dubliners. For example, before the 1745 uprising clan members mostly wore a much larger kilt, the “philamhor”, or “great kilt”; which was a long length of cloth acting as hood, cloak, kilt and blanket all in one. Hotel. [7], The Act devolves all powers except over matter it specifies as reserved matters. Successful Scottish stadium rock acts such as Simple Minds from Glasgow and Big Country from Dunfermline incorporated traditional Celtic sounds onto many of their songs. J. Herman, "British Folk-Rock; Celtic Rock", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Scottish_folk_music&oldid=999629454, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. [14], This revival began to have a major impact on classical music, with the development of what was in effect a national school of orchestral and operatic music in Scotland. Five Hand Reel, who combined Irish and Scottish personnel, emerged as the most successful exponents of the style. [23] Many of these groups played largely music originating from the Lowlands, while later, more successful bands tended to favor the Gaelic sounds of the Highlands. [22] A number festivals also popularised the music, such as Edinburgh People's Festival (1951–53) and Aberdeen Folk Festival (1963–). [2] The only song with a melody to survive from this period is the "Pleugh Song". The 'No' vote prevailed (independence was rejected), but the campaign promise of devolution resulted in the formation of the Smith Commission and the eventual passage of the Scotland Act 2016. [15] Wallace's work included an overture, In Praise of Scottish Poesie (1894). [30] From the 1980s Capercaillie combined Scottish folk music, electric instruments and haunting vocals to considerable success. Zoom. The Association was responsible for the creation of the Scottish Covenant, which gathered two million signatures in support of devolution. Many of the poems of this period were also originally songs, but for none has a notation of their music survived. [21] Also from this scene were the highly influential The Clutha, whose line up, with two fiddlers, was later augmented by the piper Jimmy Anderson, and the Whistlebinkies, who pursued a strongly instrumental format, relying on traditional instruments, including a Clàrsach (Celtic harp). [12] This led in part to British progressive folk music, which attempted to elevate folk music through greater musicianship, or compositional and arrangement skills. [21] Acts that were popularised included John Strachan (1875–1958), Jimmy MacBeath (1894–1972), Jeannie Robertson (1908–75) and Flora MacNeil (1928-2015). The "devo-max" option was not included, however, as the Edinburgh Agreement stipulated that the referendum had to be a clear binary choice between independence or the existing devolution arrangements. : collected from memory, tradition and ancient authors (1776). The fusing of various styles of American music with British folk created a distinctive form of fingerstyle guitar playing known as folk baroque, pioneered by figures including Davy Graham and Bert Jansch. Harvard professor Francis James Child's (1825–96) eight-volume collection The English and Scottish Popular Ballads (1882–92) has been the most influential on defining the repertoire of subsequent performers and the English music teacher Cecil Sharp was probably the most important in understanding of the nature of folk song. Donovan used the term "Celtic rock" to describe the folk rock he created for his Open Road album in 1970, featured a song with "Celtic rock" as its title. [17] Drysdale's work often dealt with Scottish themes, including the overture Tam O’ Shanter (1890), the cantata The Kelpie (1891). Niteworks inspired the two aforementioned bands and the electronic sampling of Martyn Bennett have further developed Celtic electronic music which has been described as both Gaelictronica[33] and Celtictronica. ... Southeast Florida Scottish Festival & Highland Games . Having agreed to pass the Union with England Act, the Parliament of Scotland 'adjourned' on 25 March 1707. [28] The adoption of British folk rock heavily influenced by Scottish traditional music produced groups including the JSD Band The Natural Acoustic Band (1970)and Spencer's Feat. Having agreed to pass the Union with England Act, the Parliament of Scotland 'adjourned' on 25 March 1707. [32] More recently, bands such as Mànran and Tide Lines have also focused on a combination of Celtic music and pop-rock. [9] In the eighteenth century publications included John Playford's Collection of original Scotch-tunes, (full of the highland humours) for the violin (1700), Margaret Sinkler's Music Book (1710), James Watson's Choice Collection of Comic and Serious Scots Poems both Ancient and Modern 1711. "[24] However, concerns have been expressed that its final report will not have "much legitimacy" because it was skewed towards preserving the status quo. Some of these bands produced noted solo artists, including Andy M. Stewart of Silly Wizard, Brian McNeill of Battlefield Band, and Dougie MacLean of the Tannahill Weavers. [15] The new Scottish Parliament Building brought together these different elements into one purpose built parliamentary complex, housing 129 MSPs and more than 1,000 staff and civil servants. [15] Mackenzie, who studied in Germany and Italy and mixed Scottish themes with German Romanticism,[16] is best known for his three Scottish Rhapsodies (1879–80, 1911), Pibroch for violin and orchestra (1889) and the Scottish Concerto for piano (1897), all involving Scottish themes and folk melodies. [10] Among Scott's early works was the influential collection of ballads Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border (1802–03). They remained an oral tradition until they were collected as folk songs in the eighteenth century. Some may date back to the late Medieval era and deal with events and people that can be traced back as far as the thirteenth century. There is evidence that there was a flourishing culture of popular music in Scotland during the late Middle Ages, but the only song with a melody to survive from this period is the "Pleugh Song". The people of Scotland first got the opportunity to vote in a referendum on proposals for devolution in 1979 and, although a majority of those voting voted 'Yes', the referendum legislation also required 40% of the electorate to vote 'Yes' for the plans to be enacted and this was not achieved. Spend any length of time here, a toe-tapping tune, a jovial dance and a hearty sing-a-long is almost a guarantee, and it's rarely a quiet affair. The Secretaries of State were reorganised in 1782 and the duties now came under the Secretary of State for the Home Department. From 1892 the Secretary for Scotland sat in cabinet, but the position was not officially recognised as a full member of the cabinet of the United Kingdom until the Secretary for Scotland post was upgraded to full Secretary of State rank as Secretary of State for Scotland in 1926. However, in Scotland the circuit of ceilidhs and festivals helped prop up traditional music. From 1978, when they began to release original albums, Runrig produced highly polished Scottish folk rock, including the first commercially successful album with the all Gaelic Play Gaelic in 1978. [19] Similarly, McEwen's Pibroch (1889), Border Ballads (1908) and Solway Symphony (1911) incorporated traditional Scottish folk melodies. In May 1913 the House of Commons passed the second reading of the Government of Scotland Bill 1913 (also referred to as the Scottish Home Rule Bill) by 204 votes to 159. The Highlands in the early seventeenth century saw the development of piping families including the MacCrimmons, MacArthurs, MacGregors and the Mackays of Gairloch. This is particularly noticeable in the United States and Canada, where there are large communities descended from Irish and Scottish immigrants. Based on the Smith Commission's recommendations, the Scotland Act 2016 was passed by Parliament and received Royal Assent on 23 March 2016. [12] Many progressive folk performers continued to retain a traditional element in their music, including Jansch who became a member of the band Pentangle in 1967. From the U.S. this includes Seven Nations, Prydein and Flatfoot 56. The decision of the Parliament of Scotland to ratify the Treaty of Union in 1707 was not unanimous and, from that time, individuals and organisations have advocated the reinstatement of a Scottish Parliament. I. G. C. Hutchison, "Workshop of Empire: The Nineteenth Century" in J. Wormald, ed.. C. Craig, "Culture: modern times (1914–): the novel", in M. Lynch, ed.. S. Broughton, M. Ellingham and R. Trillo, eds. From Celtic music to pop and rock, intimate gigs to massive arenas - we've got you covered. From Canada are bands such as Enter the Haggis, Great Big Sea, The Real Mckenzies and Spirit of the West. [26], In August 2009 the SNP announced a Referendum Bill would be included in its package of bills to be debated before Parliament in 2009–10, with the intention of holding a referendum on the issues of Scottish independence in November 2010. Sheepherding. [27] The Boys of the Lough and Battlefield Band, emerged from the flourishing Glasgow folk scene. Some have argued for devolution – a Scottish Parliament within the United Kingdom – while others have advocated complete independence. [12] Others largely abandoned the traditional element of their music. From the United States this includes Scottish bands Seven Nations, Prydein and Flatfoot 56. This includes the long list of songs given in The Complaynt of Scotland (1549). Hutchison, I. G. C., "Workshop of Empire: The Nineteenth Century" in J. Wormald, ed.. Porter, J., "Introduction" in J. Porter, ed., This page was last edited on 11 January 2021, at 04:11. After World War II traditional music in Scotland was marginalised, but remained a living tradition. [16], The building aims to conceive a poetic union between the Scottish landscape, its people, its culture and the city of Edinburgh, an approach that won the parliament building numerous awards including the 2005 Stirling Prize, and it has been described as "a tour de force of arts and crafts and quality without parallel in the last 100 years of British architecture". Acts that were popularised included John Strachan, Jimmy MacBeath, Jeannie Robertson and Flora MacNeil. History of the Scottish Clan System. Celtic rock developed as a variant of British folk rock by Scottish groups including the JSD Band and Spencer's Feat. [6], There is evidence of ballads from this period. [1] After the Reformation, the secular popular tradition of music continued, despite attempts by the Kirk, particularly in the Lowlands, to suppress dancing and events like penny weddings at which tunes were played. We service the whole of the Highlands and our creative learning team live … (Hansard, 30 May 1913)", "12 May 1999: Winnie Ewing reconvenes the Scottish Parliament", "Scotland's Parliament to start life in General Assembly Hall", "Scotland the brave: operatic in both conception and execution, Scotland's long awaited new parliament will help a fledgling institution to mature and evolve", "Identity parade: Miralles and the Scottish parliament: On the architectural territories of the EMBT/RMJM parliament building", "Holyrood is 'without parallel' in 100 years of architecture", "The implementation of a strategic state in a small country setting—the case of the 'Scottish Approach, The Scottish Parliament - Official Report, "Salmond to push ahead with referendum Bill", "Scotland Act 2016 receives Royal Assent", "Holyrood gives approval to devolved powers Scotland Bill", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_Scottish_devolution&oldid=990900340, Articles with dead external links from April 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 27 November 2020, at 04:14. Craig, C., "Culture: modern times (1914–): the novel", in M. Lynch, ed.. Herman, J., "British Folk-Rock; Celtic Rock". From the late 1970s the attendance at, and numbers of, folk clubs began to decrease, as new musical and social trends began to dominate. It's aggressive without effort, with a few simple phrases able to send someone on their way. [8], In Scotland the earliest printed collection of secular music was by publisher John Forbes, produced in Aberdeen in 1662 as Songs and Fancies: to Thre, Foure, or Five Partes, both Apt for Voices and Viols. The bill did not pass due to the SNP's status as a minority administration, and due to the initial opposition to the Bill from all other major parties in the Scottish Parliament.[27][28]. A history of Scottish insults THERE is something unique about the Scottish tongue when it comes to insults. ", One by-product of the Celtic Diaspora was the existence of large communities across the world that looked for their cultural roots and identity to their origins in the Celtic nations. A second referendum was held in September 1997, with the vote delivering greater powers. In 1923 the Royal Scottish Country Dance Society was founded in an attempt to preserve traditional Scottish dance that were threatened by the introduction of the continental ballroom dances such as the waltz or quadrilles. Out of the wreckage of the latter in 1974, guitarist Dick Gaughan (born 1948) formed probably the most successful band in this genre Five Hand Reel, who combed Irish and Scottish personnel, before he embarked on an influential solo career.[29]. In an effort to persuade Scots to remain in the Union, the major UK parties vowed to devolve further powers to Scotland after the referendum. A number of these new performers, including the Ian Campbell Folk Group, emerged from the skiffle movement. The new united Kingdom of Great Britain[1][2] came into being on 1 May 1707, with a single parliament of Great Britain which in effect was the Parliament of England with the addition of Scottish representation. The negotiation of the Edinburgh Agreement (2012) resulted in the UK government legislating to provide the Scottish Parliament with the powers to hold the referendum. Collection began to gain momentum in the early eighteenth century and, as the kirk's opposition to music waned, there were a flood of publications including Allan Ramsay's verse compendium The Tea Table Miscellany (1723) and The Scots Musical Museum (1787 to 1803) by James Johnson and Robert Burns. There was also a strand of popular Scottish music that benefited from the arrival of radio and television, which relied on images of Scottishness derived from tartanry and stereotypes employed in music hall and variety, exemplified by the TV programme The White Heather Club which ran from 1958 to 1967, hosted by Andy Stewart and starring Moira Anderson and Kenneth McKeller. [25], During 2008, agreement was reached to transfer responsibility for all planning and nature conservation matters at sea up to 200 miles from the Scottish coast to the Scottish Government. The Scottish Government also suggested that full fiscal autonomy for Scotland (known as "devo-max") could be an alternative option in the vote. [3] This tradition continued into the nineteenth century, with major figures such as the fiddlers Neil (1727–1807) and his son Nathaniel Gow (1763–1831), who, along with a large number of anonymous musicians, composed hundreds of fiddle tunes and variations. [18] MacCunn's overture The Land of the Mountain and the Flood (1887), his Six Scotch Dances (1896), his operas Jeanie Deans (1894) and Dairmid (1897) and choral works on Scottish subjects[15] have been described by I. G. C. Hutchison as the musical equivalent of the Scots Baronial castles of Abbotsford and Balmoral. Piping & Drumming. Scottish Festival Planning & Board Meeting (session 2 of 2) 02/03/2021 7:00 PM. Eden Court is a large multi-arts venue within the North of Scotland. From Canada are bands such as Enter the Haggis, Great Big Sea, The Real Mckenzies and Spirit of the West. We have a varied programme of live performance, cinema and creative learning. [23] Its terms of reference are: "To review the provisions of the Scotland Act 1998 in the light of experience and to recommend any changes to the present constitutional arrangements that would enable the Scottish Parliament to better serve the people of Scotland, that would improve the financial accountability of the Scottish Parliament and that would continue to secure the position of Scotland within the United Kingdom. In response to the clear majority voting for both proposals, the United Kingdom Parliament passed the Scotland Act 1998, creating the Scottish Parliament and Scottish Executive. This revival began to have a major impact on classical music, with the development of what was in effect a national school of orchestral and operatic music in Scotland, with composers such as included Alexander Mackenzie, William Wallace, Learmont Drysdale, Hamish MacCunn and John McEwen. There is evidence of ballads from this period. The oppression of secular music and dancing by the kirk began to ease between about 1715 and 1725 and the level of musical activity was reflected in a flood musical publications in broadsheets and compendiums of music such as the makar Allan Ramsay's verse compendium The Tea Table Miscellany (1723), William Thomson's Orpheus Caledonius: or, A collection of Scots songs (1733), James Oswald's The Caledonian Pocket Companion (1751), and David Herd's Ancient and modern Scottish songs, heroic ballads, etc. Join the BBC Scottish Symphony Orchestra and CBBC presenter Naomi Wilkinson as we explore trailblazers of classical music. The fusing of various styles of American music with British folk created a distinctive form of fingerstyle guitar playing known as folk baroque, pioneered by figures including Davy Graham and Bert Jansch. Many of the features of Scottish clans that are known and celebrated now are actually relatively recent reinventions. J. R. Baxter, "Music, ecclesiastical", in M. Lynch, ed.. J. Porter, "Introduction" in J. Porter, ed.. J. R. Baxter, "Culture, Enlightenment (1660–1843): music", in M. Lynch, ed.. J. R. Baxter, "Music, Highland", in M. Lynch, ed.. There is also evidence of adoption of the fiddle in the Highlands. Frequent guests included Moira Anderson (born 1938) and Kenneth McKeller (1927–2010), who enjoyed their own programmes. Radio broadcasts by Lomax, Hamish Henderson and Peter Kennedy (1922–2006) were also important in raising awareness of the tradition, particularly Kennedy's As I Roved Out, which was largely based around Scottish and Irish music. The first folk club was founded in London by Ewan MacColl (1915–89), who emerged as a leading figure in the revival in Britain, recording influential records such as Scottish Popular Ballads (1956). [8] They remained an oral tradition until the increased interest in folk songs in the eighteenth century led collectors such as Bishop Thomas Percy to publish volumes of popular ballads. Map & Directions. However, in Scotland the circuit of ceilidhs and festivals helped prop up traditional music. Celtic rock developed as a variant of British folk rock, playing traditional Scottish folk music with rock instrumentation, developed by Fairport Convention and its members from 1969. The Calman Commission was established by a motion passed by the Scottish Parliament on 6 December 2007. They also agreed to a devolution timetable proposed by Gordon Brown. [4] The Highlands in the early seventeenth century saw the development of piping families including the MacCrimmonds, MacArthurs, MacGregors and the Mackays of Gairloch. The new united Kingdom of Great Britain came into being on 1 May 1707, with a single parliament of Great Britain which in effect was the Parliament of England with the addition of Scottish representation. [21] Other changes that took place at this time included the development of the National Performance Framework and major restructuring whereby Directors-General were put in charge of the achievement of the Government's strategic objectives. After heavy campaigning by both sides, voting took place on 18 September 2014. In Scotland collectors included the Reverend James Duncan and Gavin Greig. From the late nineteenth century there was renewed interest in traditional music, which was more academic and political in intent. Early on they hosted traditional performers, including Donald Higgins and the Stewarts of Blairgowrie, beside English performers and new Scottish revivalists such as Robin Hall (1936–98), Jimmie Macgregor (born 1930) and The Corries. [7] Scottish ballads are distinct, showing some pre-Christian influences in the inclusion of supernatural elements such as the fairies in the Scottish ballad "Tam Lin". The Act was introduced by the Labour government in 1998 after the 1997 referendum. Scottish voters were given the chance to vote 'Yes' on outright independence in a 2014 referendum. Following the 2011 Scottish Parliament election the SNP had a majority in parliament and again brought forward an Independence Referendum Bill. Scottish Parliament reconvenes. It was printed three times in the next twenty years, and contained seventy-seven songs, of which twenty-five were of Scottish origin. Appalshop, a rural arts and education center in Whitesburg, Kentucky, exemplifies the effort to preserve the Scottish and Scotch-Irish heritage of Appalachia on film and also recorded music. The Act required that for the Act not to be repealed at least 40% of the electorate would have to vote Yes in the referendum. Two days before the referendum was held, with polls very close, the leaders of the three main UK political parties made "The Vow", a public pledge to devolve "extensive new powers" to the Scottish Parliament if independence was rejected. MacLean is perhaps the best known of these, having written "Caledonia," one of Scotland's most beloved songs. Upcoming Events. From the late 1970s the attendance at, and numbers of, folk clubs began to decrease, as new musical and social trends, including punk rock, new wave and electronic music began to dominate. The day after the referendum, David Cameron announced the formation of the Smith Commission to "convene cross-party talks" concerning "recommendations for further devolution of powers to the Scottish Parliament". [22] The Scottish Executive was legally renamed to the Scottish Government in the Scotland Act 2012. You will find in these chronology pages the precise dates of over 700 historical events which took place over the last 2,000 years of Scottish history. Links are also provided to over 400 related articles where you can obtain more information on the events - and the people - that made Scotland what it is today. Two of the most successful groups of the 1980s that emerged from this dance band circuit were Runrig and Capercaillie. Melodies have survived separately in the post-Reformation publication of The Gude and Godlie Ballatis (1567),[1] which were spiritual satires on popular songs, adapted and published by the brothers James, John and Robert Wedderburn. There is also evidence of adoption of the fiddle in the Highlands with Martin Martin noting in his A Description of the Western Isles of Scotland (1703) that he knew of eighteen players in Lewis alone. Major composers included Alexander Mackenzie (1847–1935), William Wallace (1860–1940), Learmont Drysdale (1866–1909), Hamish MacCunn (1868–1916) and John McEwen (1868–1948). [21], There was also a strand of popular Scottish music that benefited from the arrival of radio and television, which relied on images of Scottishness derived from tartanry and stereotypes employed in music hall and variety. Some may date back to the late Medieval era and deal with events and people that can be traced back as far as the thirteenth century, including "Sir Patrick Spens" and "Thomas the Rhymer", but for which there is no evidence until the eighteenth century. These were drawn on for the most influential collection, The Scots Musical Museum published in six volumes from 1787 to 1803 by James Johnson and Robert Burns, which also included new words by Burns. Festival Info. [12] Two of the most successful groups of the 1980s emerged from this dance band circuit. This period saw the creation of the ceòl mór (the great music) of the bagpipe, which reflected its martial origins, with battle-tunes, marches, gatherings, salutes and laments. The first clear reference to the use of the Highland bagpipes mentions their use at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh in 1547. Baxter, J. R., "Culture, Enlightenment (1660–1843): music", in M. Lynch, ed.. Baxter, J. R., "Music, Highland", in M. Lynch, ed.. Broughton, S. ,Ellingham M., and Trillo, R., eds. Though perhaps not as popular as some of their Celtic fusion counterparts, traditional Scottish artists are still making music. The accordion also began to be a central instrument at Highland balls and dances. [12] In Scotland collectors included the Reverend James Duncan (1848–1917) and Gavin Greig (1856–1914), who collected over 1,000 songs, mainly from Aberdeenshire. The Scottish referendum of 1979 was a post-legislative referendum to decide whether there was sufficient support for the Scotland Act 1978 that was to create a deliberative assembly for Scotland. [13] Enric Miralles, the Spanish architect who designed the building, died before its completion. The Select Scottish Airs collected by George Thomson and published between 1799 and 1818 included contributions from Burns and Walter Scott. Well-known musicians included the fiddler Pattie Birnie and the piper Habbie Simpson. Members of the organisation were also responsible for the removal of the Stone of Destiny from Westminster Abbey in 1950 that attracted huge publicity for the cause of Scottish home rule. The clan system of Scotland has ancient origins in the Celtic, Norman-French and Norse traditions, and can be traced back to a time when people lived off the land, and border disputes were a common occurrence. The Act recognised the Scottish Parliament and a Scottish Government as permanent among UK's constitutional arrangements, with a referendum required before either can be abolished. Particularly important were Donovan (who was most influenced by emerging progressive folk musicians in America such as Bob Dylan) and the Incredible String Band, who from 1967 incorporated a range of influences including medieval and Eastern music into their compositions, leading to the development of psychedelic folk, which had a considerable impact on progressive and psychedelic rock. 1885 saw the creation of the Scottish Office and the post of Secretary for Scotland. Proponents included Andy Stewart (1933–93), whose weekly programme The White Heather Club ran in Scotland from 1958 to 1967. The Scottish devolution referendum of 1997 was a pre-legislative referendum over whether there was support for the creation of a Scottish Parliament within the United Kingdom and whether there was support for such a parliament to have tax varying powers. Were Runrig and Capercaillie and CBBC presenter Naomi Wilkinson scottish music history we explore trailblazers of music. A variant of British folk rock by Scottish groups including the JSD and. Element including Donovan and the Incredible String Band, who enjoyed their own programmes 1980s... Established by a motion passed by the Labour government in the Scotland Act 2012 fairly. There is something unique about the Scottish government in the Highlands folk circles none! Radio programmes 21 ] in the late nineteenth century there was a culture! [ 10 ] Among Scott 's early works was the influential collection of ballads Minstrelsy of the in. 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